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    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Tobias Berthold, Günther Benstetter, Werner Frammelsberger, R. Rodríguez, M. Nafría

    Nanoscale characterization of CH3-terminated Self-Assembled Monolayer on copper by advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques

    Applied Surface Science, vol. 356, pp. 921-926

    2015

    DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.08.182

    Abstract anzeigen

    In this study, we used Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) with CH3 end-group molecules to protect copper surfaces from oxidation and investigated at nanometer scale the integrity and temperature stability of the protective film. The films were characterized by dynamic Chemical Force Microscopy (dCFM), Torsional Resonance Tunneling Atomic Force Microscopy (TR-TUNA) and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We observed that temperature stress degraded local properties of our SAM films significantly, when compared to unstressed films. After temperature stress at 100 °C, tunneling current increased and hydrophobicity decreased substantially. In combination with the ATR-FTIR results we assigned local high current spots and local hydrophobic variations to cuprous oxide (Cu2O). After temperature stress at 150 °C, the measurements indicate a decomposition of the SAM film and a further oxidation of the copper surface. In addition, the results show that dynamic dCFM and TR-TUNA are appropriate tools to characterize SAM films structurally, chemically and electrically. Most important, in contrast to conventional contact mode Atomic Force Microscopy techniques, we did not observe any damage to the SAM film by dCFM and TR-TUNA measurements.

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Manuel Bogner, Alexander Hofer, Günther Benstetter, H. Gruber, R.Y.Q. Fu

    Differential 3ω method for measuring thermal conductivity of AIN and SI3N4 thin films

    Thin Solid Films, vol. 591 Part B, pp. 267-270

    2015

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2015.03.031

    Abstract anzeigen

    The thermal conductivity λ of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited Si3N4 and sputtered AlN thin films deposited on silicon substrates were obtained utilizing the differential 3ω method. A thin electrically conductive strip was deposited onto the investigated thin film of interest, and used as both a heater and a temperature sensor. To study the thickness dependent thermal conductivity of AlN and Si3N4 films their thickness was varied from 300 to 1000 nm. Measurements were performed at room temperature at a chamber pressure of 3.1 Pa. The measured thermal conductivity values of AlN and Si3N4 thin films were between 5.4 and 17.6 Wm− 1 K− 1 and 0.8 up to 1.7 Wm− 1 K− 1, respectively. The data were significantly smaller than that of the bulk materials found in literature (i.e., λAlN = 250–285 Wm− 1 K− 1, λSi3N4 = 30 Wm− 1 K− 1), due to the scaling effects, and also strongly dependent on film thickness, but were comparable with literature for the corresponding thin films.

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    L. Hamann, Günther Benstetter, Alexander Hofer, M. Mattheis, M. Haas, R. Zapf-Gottwick

    Use of Coated-Metal Particles in Rear Busbar Pastes to Reduce Silver Consumption

    IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 534-537

    2015

    DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2388080

    Abstract anzeigen

    Reducing the amount of silver is one of the most important ways to reduce the cost of photovoltaic cells. The common way to reduce silver consumption on a cell is the reduction of the metal content in the paste. We present a new paste with silver-coated nickel particles, reducing the silver amount and still keeping the properties of silver related to oxidation and sintering. This paper shows the limits in conductivity due to porosity and oxidation of coated-metal particle pastes in comparison with silver pastes. Simulations and cell tests show that coated-metal particle pastes reduce silver consumption without decreasing the cell efficiency replacing busbar pastes. Coated-metal particle pastes are able to decrease silver consumption for rear-side busbars to c Ag <; 1.4 mg/cm 2 , leading to a conductivity σ BB = 1.110 5 S/cm, without decreasing cell or module efficiency. The conductivity of coated-metal particle pastes is too low using pastes with coated-metal particles as a replacement for the metallization paste for grid fingers but good enough to replace the silver paste for busbars with a cheap alternative.

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Tobias Berthold, Günther Benstetter, Werner Frammelsberger, R. Rodríguez, M. Nafría

    Nanoscale characterization of copper oxide films by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    Thin Solid Films, vol. 584, no. June 2015, pp. 310-315

    2015

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2015.01.071

    Abstract anzeigen

    In this work Peakforce Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (PF-KPFM) at ambient environment is used to characterize both oxidation states of copper (Cu) surfaces, cupric oxide CuO and cuprous oxide Cu2O, with high lateral resolution. Characteristic values of the contact potential difference were obtained for the copper oxide states. By this means, PF-KPFM measurements enabled to distinguish between the different types of Cu oxide with nanometer resolution and to correlate the oxidation states to local topography features. It was even possible to identify single oxide grains on top of the Cu surface. As a result, PF-KPFM is able to address the needs for nanoscale characterization methods in semiconductor manufacturing or other related technologies where the local oxidation behavior of copper is a critical issue.

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Vortrag

    Manuel Bogner, Günther Benstetter, Alexander Hofer, H. Gruber

    The differential 3ω method for measuring the thermal conductivity of AIN and SI3N4 thin films

    16th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF16), Dubrovnik, Kroatien

    2014

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMAMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Vortrag

    Tobias Berthold, Günther Benstetter, Werner Frammelsberger, R. Rodríguez, M. Nafría

    Characterization of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Copper by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    16th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF16), Dubrovnik, Kroatien

    2014

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMAMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Vortrag

    Tobias Berthold, Günther Benstetter, Werner Frammelsberger, R. Rodríguez, M. Nafría

    Nanoscale copper oxide characterization with Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    Posterpräsentation

    The 7th International Conference on Technological Advances of Thin Films & Surface Coatings (THINFILMS2014), Chongquing, China

    2014

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Vortrag

    Günther Benstetter, Alexander Hofer, Tobias Berthold

    Selected Atomic Force Microscopy Methods for the Electrical Characterization of Thin Films and Devices

    Invited Talk

    4th International Advances in Applied Physics and Materials Science Congress & Exhibition (APMAS), Fethiye, Türkei

    2014

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMAMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Günther Benstetter, Werner Frammelsberger

    Raster-Sonden-Mikroskopie

    Analyseverfahren für die Halbleiterelektronik

    Elektrotechnik und Elektronik in Bayern, München

    2013

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Vortrag

    Manuel Bogner, Günther Benstetter

    Determining the thermal conductivity of thin layers with the macroscopic 3ω method

    Applied Research Conference (ARC), Deggendorf

    2013

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Vortrag

    Alexander Hofer, R. Biberger, Günther Benstetter, B. Wilke, H. Göbel

    Scanning probe microscopy based electrical characterization of thin dielectric and organic semiconductor films

    24th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Arcachon, Frankreich

    2013

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Alexander Hofer, R. Biberger, Günther Benstetter, B. Wilke, H. Göbel

    Scanning probe microscopy based electrical characterization of thin dielectric and organic semiconductor films

    Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 53, no. 9-11, pp. 1430-1433

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques offer various characterization methods for thin organic films. However, the majority of the electrical SPM measurements is currently performed in contact mode operation and may lead to severe damage at the surface of soft organic materials. This work shows the electrical characterization of organic insulator and semiconductor films by use of two SPM techniques operating with reduced lateral forces between SPM tip and sample. The first one is intermittent-contact scanning-capacitance-microscopy (IC-SCM) which is used for the detection of the local surface capacitance. The second one is torsional resonance tunneling-atomic-force-microscopy (TR-TUNA) which shows the local conductivity respectively relative film thickness of the sample. It is found that the tunneling current distribution across 50 nm thick organic insulating films is very homogeneous and that inhomogeneities in P3HT and Pentacene films can be pinpointed even if no topographical variations are observable.

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Alexander Hofer, Günther Benstetter, R. Biberger, C. Leirer, G. Brüderl

    Analysis of crystal defects on GaN based semiconductors with advanced scanning probe microscope technique

    Thin Solid Films, vol. 544, no. Oktober, pp. 139-143

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    The correlation of surface pits with leakage currents in gallium nitride (GaN) films are studied with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. The analyses were performed at both single n-GaN films grown on free-standing GaN and completely processed GaN light-emitting diode (LED) structures on sapphire substrates both grown by metal organic chemical vapor phase epitaxy. Topographical SPM images acquired with ultra-sharp probes were superimposed with current maps obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). The applicability of two different modifications of CAFM techniques has been studied. For both sample types, CAFM has revealed a clear correlation between forward-bias leakage current and locations of surface pits. In case of the LED structure, additional local current–voltage characteristics show that enhanced current conduction occurs in both forward and reverse bias on surface pit positions.

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMAMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Vortrag

    Tobias Berthold, Günther Benstetter, Werner Frammelsberger, R. Rodríguez, M. Nafría, Raimund Förg

    Analysis of copper oxide films by combined scanning microscopy

    6th International Conference on Technological Advances of Thin Films & Surface Coatings (THINFILMS2012), Singapur, Singapur

    2012

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Vortrag

    Alexander Hofer, Günther Benstetter, R. Biberger, C. Leirer, G. Brüderl

    Analysis of crystal defects on GaN-based semiconductors with advanced scanning probe microscope techniques

    Invited Talk

    6th International Conference on Technological Advances of Thin Films & Surface Coatings (THINFILMS2012), Singapur, Singapur

    2012

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Vortrag

    S. Rogowsky, R. Ostendorf, G. Kaufel, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, S. Liebich, M. Zimprich, K. Volz, W. Stolz, B. Kunert, Edgar Lodermeier, Heiko Ranzinger, Günther Benstetter

    Characteristics of diode laser structures on silicon substrates based on the Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)(AsP) materials combination

    Photonics West, San Francisco, CA, USA

    2012

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    V. Iglesias, M. Lanza, K. Zhang, A. Bayerl, M. Porti, M. Nafría, X. Aymerich, Günther Benstetter, Z. Shen, G. Bersuker

    Degradation of polycrystalline HfO2 based gate dielectrics under nanoscale electrical stress

    Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99

    2011

    Abstract anzeigen

    The evolution of the electrical properties of HfO2/SiO2/Si dielectric stacks under electrical stress has been investigated using atomic force microscope-based techniques. The current through the grain boundaries (GBs), which is found to be higher than thorough the grains, is correlated to a higher density of positively charged defects at the GBs. Electrical stress produces different degradation kinetics in the grains and GBs, with a much shorter time to breakdown in the latter, indicating that GBs facilitate dielectric breakdown in high-k gate stacks.

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Bayerl, M. Lanza, M. Porti, M. Nafría, X. Aymerich, F. Campabadal, Günther Benstetter

    Nanoscale and Device Level Gate Conduction Variability of High-k Dielectrics-Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures

    IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 11, no. September, pp. 495-501

    2011

    DOI: 10.1109/TDMR.2011.2161087

    Abstract anzeigen

    The polycrystalline microstructure of the high-k dielectric of gate stacks in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices can be a potential source of variability. In this paper, a conductive atomic force microscope (CAFM) and a Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) have been used to investigate how the thickness and the crystallization (after a thermal annealing) of the high-k layer affect the nanoscale morphological and electrical properties of the gate stack. The impact of such nanoscale properties on the reliability and variability of the global gate electrical characteristics of fully processed MOS devices has also been investigated.

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Bayerl, M. Lanza, M. Porti, F. Campabadal, M. Nafría, X. Aymerich, Günther Benstetter

    Reliability and gate conduction variability of HfO2-based MOS devices: A combined nanoscale and device level study

    Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88, pp. 1334-1337

    2011

    Abstract anzeigen

    The electrical properties and reliability of MOS devices based on high-k dielectrics can be affected when the gate stack is subjected to an annealing process, which can lead to the polycrystallization of the high-k layer. In this work, a Conductive Atomic Force Microscope (C-AFM) has been used to study the nanoscale electrical conduction and reliability of amorphous and polycrystalline HfO2 based gate stacks. The link between the nanoscale properties and the reliability and gate conduction variability of fully processed MOS devices has also been investigated.

    Elektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Vortrag

    Günther Benstetter

    Novel Scanning Capacitance Microscopy Techniques for Device and Thin Film Characterization

    2011