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Suche nach „[Barkowsky] [Marcus]“ hat 114 Publikationen gefunden
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    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    P. Lebreton, A. Raake, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Perceptual preference of S3D over 2D for HDTV in dependence of video quality and depth

    2013 IEEE 11th IVMSP Workshop

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    3D video quality of experience (QoE) is a multidimensional problem and many factors contribute to the global experience by the user. Due to this multidimensionality, this paper evaluates the integral 3D video QoE and relates it with image quality and depth. Subjective tests have been conducted using paired comparison to evaluate 3D QoE and the preference of 3D over 2D with different combinations of coding conditions. Depth scores were available from previous work and were used to check their relation with 3DQoE; the difference between 2D and 3D QoE is found to be a function of the picture quality, and the desired preference of 3D presentation over 2D can be reached when pictorial quality is high enough (VQM score lower than 0.24). A factor ranging from 0.08 to 0.76 with a mean of 0.71 between pictorial quality and preference of 3D was also found.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    J. Paulus, G. Michelson, Marcus Barkowsky, J. Hornegger, B. Eskofier, M. Schmidt

    Measurement of Individual Changes in the Performance of Human Stereoscopic Vision for Disparities at the Limits of the Zone of Comfortable Viewing

    2013 International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV 2013)

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    3D displays enable immersive visual impressions but the impact on the human perception still is not fully understood. Viewing conditions like the convergence-accommodation (C-A) conflict have an unnatural influence on the visual system and might even lead to visual discomfort. As visual perception is individual we assumed the impact of simulated 3D content on the visual system to be as well. In this study we aimed to analyze the stereoscopic visual performance of 17 subjects for disparities inside and outside the in literature defined zone of comfortable viewing to provide an individual evaluation of the impact of increased disparities on the performance of the visual system. Stereoscopic stimuli were presented in a four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) setup in different disparities. The response times as well as the correct decision rates indicated the performance of stereoscopic vision. The results showed that increased disparities lead to a decline in performance. Further, the impact of the presented disparities is dependent on the difficulty of the task. The decline of performance as well as the deciding disparities for the decline were subject dependent.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    M. Leszczuk, L. Janowski, Marcus Barkowsky

    Freely Available Large-scale Video Quality Assessment Database in Full-HD Resolution with H.264 Coding

    Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Atlanta, GA, USA, no. -

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    Video databases often focus on a particular use case with a limited set of sequences. In this paper, a different type of database creation is proposed: an exhaustive number of test conditions will be continuously created and made freely available for objective and subjective evaluation. At the moment, the database comprises more than ten thousand JM/x264-encoded video sequences. An extensive study of the possible encoding parameter space led to a first subset selection of 1296 configura- tions. At the moment, only ten source sequences have been used, but extension to more than one hundred sequences is planned. Some Full-Reference (FR) and No-Reference (NR) metrics were selected and calculated. The resulting data will be freely available to the research community and possible exploitation areas are suggested.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    M. Urvoy, Marcus Barkowsky, J. Li, P. Le Callet

    Visual Comfort and Fatigue in Stereoscopy

    3D Video: From Capture to Diffusion, London, UK

    2013

    ISBN: 9781848215078

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    J. Li, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Subjective Assessment Methodology For Preference Of Experience In 3dtv

    Proceedings of the 11th IEEE IVMSP Workshop : 3D Image/Video Technologies and Applications, Seoul, South Korea

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    The measurement of the Quality of Experience (QoE) in 3DTV re- cently became an important research topic as it relates to the devel- opment of the 3D industry. Pair comparison is a reliable method as it is easier for the observers to provide their preference on a pair rather than give an absolute scale value to a stimulus. The QoE measured by pair comparison is thus called \textquoteright. In this paper, we introduce some efficient designs for pair compari- son which can reduce the number of comparisons. The constraints of the presentation order of the stimuli in pair comparison test are listed. Finally, some analysis methods for pair comparison data are provided accompanied with some examples from the studies of the measurement of PoE.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    K. Brunnström, I. Ananth, C. Hedberg, K. Wang, B. Andrén, Marcus Barkowsky

    36.4: Comparison between Different Rating Scales for 3D TV

    SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 509-512

    2013

    DOI: 10.1002/j.2168-0159.2013.tb06256.x

    Abstract anzeigen

    Stereoscopic 3D viewing experience has been studied quite intensively recently, but still the subjective test methods have not yet been settled. It has become clear that the 3D viewing experience cannot easily be described by just one scale. This paper describes a study where three different rating scales (Quality, Discomfort and Presence) are compared in a subjective test, combined with two viewing distances. The results shows that in a stereoscopic 3D video quality test targeting mainly coding distortions one scale such as video quality could be sufficient.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    W. Chen, J. Fournier, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Methodologies for Assessing 3D QoE: Standards and Explorative Studies

    ZTE Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 2-10

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    Mastering quality of experience (QoE) is key to the widespread adoption of stereoscopic 3DTV (S-3DTV). However, assessing QoE of S-3DTV is not straightforward. Methods for determining observer experience need to be clearly defined and sufficiently robust. In this paper, we present state-of-the-art subjective QoE assessment for S-3DTV. We present conventional stan⁃ dardized ITU recommendations for evaluating picture quality and discuss new ITU activities in the area of S-3DTV assess⁃ ment. We also present and discuss explorative studies from the literature. We then introduce ways of using conventional quality assessment for S-3DTV QoE assessment. In discussing our pro⁃ posal, we mainly focus on QoE indicators and common features of subjective assessment. Multidimensional QoE indicators need to be used in S-3DTV to highlight advantages and reveal problems. In the second part of our proposal, we discuss the re⁃ quirements for adapting ITU-R BT.500, a conventional subjec⁃ tive QoE assessment method, ITU-R BT.500, for assessing QoE of S-3DTV are presented.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    M. Pinson, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Selecting scenes for 2D and 3D subjective video quality tests

    EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing, no. 1

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper presents recommended techniques for choosing video sequences for subjective experiments. Subjective video quality assessment is a well-understood field, yet scene selection is often driven by convenience or content availability. Three-dimensional testing is a newer field that requires new considerations for scene selection. The impact of experiment design on best practices for scene selection will also be considered. A semi-automatic selection process for content sets for subjective experiments will be proposed.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    M. Urvoy, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    How visual fatigue and discomfort impact 3D-TV quality of experience: a comprehensive review of technological, psychophysical, and psychological factors

    Annales des Télécommunications, vol. 68, no. 11-12, pp. 641-655

    2013

    DOI: 10.1007/s12243-013-0394-3

    Abstract anzeigen

    The quality of experience (QoE) of 3D contents is usually considered to be the combination of the perceived visual quality, the perceived depth quality, and lastly the visual fatigue and comfort. When either fatigue or discomfort are induced, studies tend to show that observers prefer to experience a 2D version of the contents. For this reason, providing a comfortable experience is a prerequisite for observers to actually consider the depth effect as a visualization improvement. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive review on visual fatigue and discomfort induced by the visualization of 3D stereoscopic contents, in the light of physiological and psychological processes enabling depth perception. First, we review the multitude of manifestations of visual fatigue and discomfort (near triad disorders, symptoms for discomfort), as well as means for detection and evaluation. We then discuss how, in 3D displays, ocular and cognitive conflicts with real world experience may cause fatigue and discomfort; these includes the accommodation-vergence conflict, the inadequacy between presented stimuli and observers depth of focus, and the cognitive integration of conflicting depth cues. We also discuss some limits for stereopsis that constrain our ability to perceive depth, and in particular the perception of planar and in-depth motion, the limited fusion range, and various stereopsis disorders. Finally, this paper discusses how the different aspects of fatigue and discomfort apply to 3D technologies and contents. We notably highlight the need for respecting a comfort zone and avoiding camera and rendering artifacts. We also discuss the influence of visual attention, exposure duration, and training. Conclusions provide guidance for best practices and future research.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    J. Li, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Recent Advances in Standardization on 3D Quality of Experience

    IEEE COMSOCMMTC E-Letter, vol. 8, no. 3

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    For the last decades, video quality assessment has mostly tackled 2D video sequences. Technological advances were mostly tackling coding and transmission schemes while the display technology, especially in lab viewing environments, could be considered as transparent. Subjective assessment methodologies needed to be selected mostly with respect to the severity of the degradations. Typical examples are Absolute Category Rating with Hidden Reference (ACR-HR) from ITU-T P.910 for strong degradations experienced in networked multimedia scenarios, and Paired Comparison (PC) or Double Stimulus Continuous Quality Scale (DSCQS) from ITU-R BT.500 for near lossless scenarios such as satellite transmissions.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    K. Wang, K. Brunnström, Marcus Barkowsky, M. Urvoy, M. Sjöström, P. Le Callet, S. Tourancheau, B. Andrén

    Stereoscopic 3D video coding quality evaluation with 2D objective metrics

    Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8648: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    The 3D video quality is of highest importance for the adoption of a new technology from a user’s point of view. In this paper we evaluated the impact of coding artefacts on stereoscopic 3D video quality by making use of several existing full reference 2D objective metrics. We analyzed the performance of objective metrics by comparing to the results of subjective experiment. The results show that pixel based Visual Information Fidelity metrics fits subjective data the best. The 2D stereoscopic video quality seems to have dominant impact on the coding artefacts impaired stereoscopic videos.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    J. Li, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Boosting Paired Comparison methodology in measuring visual discomfort of 3DTV: Performances of three different designs

    Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8648: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    The pair comparison method is often recommended in subjective experiments because of the reliability of the obtained results. However, a drawback of this method is that the number of comparisons increases exponentially with the number of stimuli, which limits its usability for a large number of stimuli. Several design methods that aim to reduce the number of comparisons were proposed in the literature. However, their performances in the context of 3DTV should be evaluated carefully due to the fact that the results obtained from a paired comparison experiment in 3DTV may be influenced by two important factors. One is the observation error from observer's attentiveness, in particular inverting the vote. The second factor concerns the dependence on the context in which the evaluation takes place. In this study, three design methods, namely Full Paired Comparison method (FPC), Square Design method (SD) and the Adaptive Square Design method (ASD) were evaluated by subjective visual discomfort experiment in 3DTV. The results from the FPC method were considered as the ground truth. Comparing with the ground truth, the ASD method provided the most accurate results with a given number of trials. It also showed the highest robustness against observation errors and interdependence of comparisons. Due to the efficiency of the ASD method, paired comparison experiments become feasible with a reasonably large number of stimuli for measuring 3DTV visual discomfort.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Marcus Barkowsky, J. Li, T. Han, S. Youn, J. Ok, C. Lee, I. Vijai Ananth, K. Wang, K. Brunnström, P. Le Callet

    Towards standardized 3DTV QoE assessment: Cross-lab study on display technology and viewing environment parameters

    Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8648: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV;

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    Subjective assessment of Quality of Experience in stereoscopic 3D requires new guidelines for the environmental setup as existing standards such as ITU-R BT.500 may no longer be appropriate. A first step is to perform cross-lab experiments in different viewing conditions on the same video sequences. Three international labs performed Absolute Category Rating studies on a freely available video database containing degradations that are mainly related to video quality degradations. Different conditions have been used in the labs: Passive polarized displays, active shutter displays, differences in viewing distance, the number of parallel viewers, and the voting device. Implicit variations were introduced due to the three different languages in Sweden, South Korea, and France. Although the obtained Mean Opinion Scores are comparable, slight differences occur in function of the video degradations and the viewing distance. An analysis on the statistical differences obtained between the MOS of the video sequences revealed that obtaining an equivalent number of differences may require more observers in some viewing conditions. It was also seen that the alignment of the meaning of the attributes used in Absolute Category Rating in different languages may be beneficial. Statistical analysis was performed showing influence of the viewing distance on votes and MOS results.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    J. Li, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Visual Discomfort is not always proportonal to Eye Blinking Rate: Exploring Some Effects of Planar and In-Depth Motion on 3DTV QoE

    International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM 2013 (Jan 2013; Scottsdale, AZ, USA)

    2013

    Abstract anzeigen

    Visual discomfort is an important factor in determiningQoE in 3DTV. It can be measured by physiological signals. Inthis study, the relationship between 3D video characteristics(e.g., motion type, disparity, velocity, etc), visual discom-fort and eye blinking rate were studied. Three motion typeswere considered, which were static scenes, planar motionand in-depth motion. 44 stimuli with different motion types,disparity levels and velocity levels were studied. The eyeblinking signals of 28 observers were obtained by an electro-physiological measurement device. The experimental resultsshowed that stimulus velocity affected eye blinks significantlyand differently for planar motion stimuli and in-depth motionstimuli. The objective eye blinking model for 3D stimuliwas developed in function of the 3D video characteristics.Furthermore, the results showed that eye blinking rate wasproportional to the visual discomfort of the static 3D stimulibut inversely proportional to the visual discomfort of planarmotion stimuli.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    P. Lebreton, A. Raake, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Perceptual depth indicator for S-3D content based on binocular and monocular cues

    2012 Conference Record of the Forty Sixth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR)

    2012

    Abstract anzeigen

    This article describes a general depth indicator for stereoscopic 3D video sequences. This indicator targets the characterization of the depth in 3D video sequences based on both monocular and binocular depth cues. Evaluating monocular depth cues is no easy task. Due to this high complexity, only a subset of the monocular depth cues are currently considered since it is believed that they play a major impact in depth perception. The proposed algorithm will consider the following different depth cues: binocular depth, linear perspective, blur from defocus, motion parallax and texture gradient. It will be detailed how all these all metrics have been designed. The second main contribution is the definition of a specific application scope of each metrics. This is motivated by the need to take into account the reliability of each individual metrics during the pooling. Therefore, it will be considered in the paper to identify the cases where each individual metric may fail and integrate these aspects in the general combination of the depth cues.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    W. Chen, J. Fournier, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Quality of experience model for 3DTV

    Proceedings of IS&T/SPIE ELECTRONIC IMAGING | Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIII , San Francisco, CA, USA, vol. 8288, no. 59

    2012

    DOI: 10.1117/12.907873

    Abstract anzeigen

    Modern stereoscopic 3DTV brings new QoE (quality of experience) to viewers, which not only enhances the 3D sensation due to the added binocular depth, but may also induce new problems such as visual discomfort. Subjective quality assessment is the conventional method to assess the QoE. However, the conventional perceived image quality concept is not enough to reveal the advantages and the drawbacks of stereoscopic images in 3DTV. Higher-level concepts such as visual experience were proposed to represent the overall visual QoE for stereoscopic images. In this paper, both the higher-level concept quality indicator, i.e. visual experience and the basic level concepts quality indicators including image quality, depth quantity, and visual comfort are defined. We aim to explore 3D QoE by constructing the visual experience as a weight sum of image quality, depth quantity and visual comfort. Two experiments in which depth quantity and image quality are varied respectively are designed to validate this model. In the first experiment, the stimuli consist of three natural scenes and for each scene, there are four levels of perceived depth variation in terms of depth of focus: 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 diopters. In the second experiment, five levels of JPEG 2000 compression ratio, 0, 50, 100, 175 and 250 are used to represent the image quality variation. Subjective quality assessments based on the SAMVIQ method are used in both experiments to evaluate the subject's opinion in basic level quality indicators as well as the higher-level indicator. Statistical analysis of result reveals how the perceived depth and image quality variation affect different perceptual scales as well as the relationship between different quality aspects.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    P. Lebreton, A. Raake, U. Wustenhagen, T. Buchholz, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    A subjective and objective evaluation of a realistic 3D IPTV transmission chain

    Proceedings of the 19th International Packet Video Workshop (PV) 2012, München

    2012

    Abstract anzeigen

    In 3D transmissions, often a large perceptual quality gain can be achieved by slightly increasing the bitrate. However, at a certain bitrate, a saturation effect is noted and further increasing the bitrate does not lead to significant improvements of Quality of Experience (QoE). This bitrate will be called quality saturation bitrate. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a subjective and objective method to determine the quality saturation bitrate. An evaluation is presented which uses a wide spread of content types and a realistic transmission chain that includes a hardware encoder and commercial Set-Top-Boxes. A subjective assessment for various bitrates is performed using the SAMVIQ methodology and the results are also compared to objective measurements with VQM and VQUAD.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Y. Pitrey, R. Pépion, P. Le Callet, Marcus Barkowsky

    Using overlapping subjective datasets to assess the performance of objective quality metrics on Scalable Video Coding and error concealment

    Proceedings of the 2012 Fourth International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), Melbourne, Australia

    2012

    Abstract anzeigen

    In this paper, four subjective video datasets are presented. The considered application is Scalable Video Coding used as an error-concealment mechanism. The presented datasets explore the relations between encoding parameters and perceived quality, under different network-impairment patterns and involve error-concealment on the decoder\textquoterights side, to simulate a complete distribution channel. The datasets share a part of common configurations which enables, in the first part of the paper, to compare the outcomes from several Single Stimulus experiments and draw interesting correspondances between different types of distortion. In the second part of the paper, we analyse the performance of three common objective quality metrics on each step of the distribution channel, to identify the possible directions to be followed in order to improve their accuracy in predicting the perceived quality.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Marcus Barkowsky, N. Staelens, L. Janowski, Y. Koudota, M. Leszczuk, M. Urvoy, P. Hummelbrunner, I. Sedano, K. Brunnström

    Subjective experiment dataset for joint development of hybrid video quality measurement algorithms

    QoEMCS 2012 ‐ Third Workshop on Quality of Experience for Multimedia Content Sharing, Berlin

    2012

    Abstract anzeigen

    The application area of an objective measurement algorithm for video quality is always limited by the scope of the video datasets that were used during its development and training. This is particularly true for measurements which rely solely on information available at the decoder side, for example hybrid models that analyze the bitstream and the decoded video. This paper proposes a framework which enables researchers to train, test and validate their algorithms on a large database of video sequences in such a way that the ‐ often limited ‐ scope of their development can be taken into consideration. A freely available video database for the development of hybrid models is described containing the network bitstreams, parsed information from these bitstreams for easy access, the decoded video sequences, and subjectively evaluated quality scores.

    DigitalF: Angewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Y. Pitrey, Marcus Barkowsky, R. Pépion, P. Le Callet, H. Hlavacs

    Influence of the source content and encoding configuration on the preceived quality for scalable video coding

    Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8291: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XVII, San Francisco, CA, USA, no. 54

    2012

    Abstract anzeigen

    In video coding, it is commonly accepted that the encoding paramaters such as the quantization step-size have an influence on the perceived quality. When dealing with Scalable Video Coding (SVC), the parameters used to encode each layer logically have an influence on the overall perceived quality. It is also commonly accepted that using given encoding parameters, the perceived quality does not change significantly according to the encoded source content. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of both SVC coding artifacts and source contents on the quality perceived by human observers. We exploit the outcomes of two subjective experiments designed and conducted under standard conditions in order to provide reliable results. The two experiments are aligned on a common scale using a set of shared processed video sequences, resulting in a database containing the subjective scores for 60 different sources combined with 20 SVC scenarios. We analyse the performance of several source descriptors in modeling the relative behaviour of a given source content when compared to the average of other source contents.