DigitalAngewandte WirtschaftswissenschaftenTC Grafenau
M. Aggarwal, Ali Fallah Tehrani
Modelling Human Decision Behaviour with Preference Learning
INFORMS Journal on Computing, vol. 31, no. 2
Preferences provide a means for specifying the desires of a decision maker (DM) in a declarative way. In this paper, based on a DM’s pairwise preferences, we infer the DM’s unique decision model. We capture (a) the attitudinal character, (b) relative criteria importance, and (c) the criteria interaction, all of which are specific to the DM. We make use of the preference-learning (PL) technique to induce predictive preference models from empirical data. Because PL is emerging as a new subfield of machine learning, we could use standard machine-learning methods to accomplish our learning objective. We consider the DM’s exemplary preference information in the form of pairwise comparisons between alternatives as the training information. The DM’s decision model is captured in terms of (a), (b), and (c), through the parameters of an attitudinal Choquet integral operator. The proposed learning approach is validated through an experimental study on 16 standard data sets. The superiority of the proposed method in terms of predictive accuracy and easier interpretability is shown both theoretically as well as empirically.
M. Gebhardt, J. DeVries, J. Jungjohann, G. Casale, Andreas Gegenfurtner, J.-T. Kuhn
Measurement invariance of a direct behavior rating multi-item scale
Social Sciences, vol. 8, no. 46, pp. 1-23
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been evaluated mostly in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for standardized use in the pedagogical field, a larger and broader sample is required in order to assess measurement invariance between different participant groups and over time. Therefore, we constructed a DBR with multiple items to measure the occurrence of specific externalizing and internalizing student classroom behaviors on a Likert scale (1 = never to 7 = always). In a pilot study, two trained raters observed 16 primary school students and rated the student behavior over all items with a satisfactory reliability. In the main study, 108 regular primary school students, 97 regular secondary school students and 14 students in a clinical setting were rated daily over one week (five measurement points). IRT analyses confirmed the instrument’s technical adequacy, and latent growth models demonstrated the instrument’s stability over time. Further development of the instrument and study designs to implement DBRs are discussed.
A. Szulewski, R. Egan, Andreas Gegenfurtner, D. Howes, G. Dashi, McGraw, Nick C J, A. Hall, D. Dagnone, J.J.G. van Merriënboer
A new way to look at simulation-based assessment: the relationship between gaze-tracking and exam performance
Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM), vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 129-137
CLINICIAN'S CAPSULEWhat is known about this topic?Gathering visual information effectively is an important task of a physician leader when managing a resuscitation case.What did this study ask?Are there particular visual information-gathering patterns associated with performance in simulated resuscitation scenarios?What did this study find?Certain visual patterns (e.g., focusing on case-specific clinically relevant stimuli) are associated with better performance in a simulated resuscitation setting.Why does this study matter to clinicians?The ability to characterize physician visual patterns across a competence continuum has implications for trainee assessment and medical education.
L. Testers, Andreas Gegenfurtner, R. van Geel, S. Brand-Gruwel
From monocontextual to multicontextual transfer: Organizational determinants of the intention to transfer generic information literacy competences to multiple contexts
Frontline Learning Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 23-42
An important goal of educational designers is to achieve long-term transfer of learning that is the learner's application of newly acquired competencies. Extensive research during more than a century shows that especially in formal educational settings this fundamental aspect of education often occurs poorly or not at all, leading to what is called a Transfer Problem. To address this transfer problem, the present study examines intentions to transfer learning to multiple contexts; this focus on multiple transfer contexts extends previous research focusing on a single transfer context, typically the workplace. The present study aimed to estimate the influence of five organizational variables (peer support, supervisor support, opportunity to use, openness to change, and feedback) on transfer intention in two different transfer contexts: study and work. Participants were 303 students at an open university attending a course in information literacy. The model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that before starting the course supervisor support and feedback were considered the strongest predictors of intention to transfer new learning in both the study and the work contexts. This research is amongst the first in the training literature to address multi-contextuality and examines intentions to transfer generic competences to the two transfer contexts study and work within one single study.
NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA
L. Liu, S. Li, D. Liu, Günther Benstetter, O. Man, J. Michalicka, Y. Zhang, Y. Hong, H. Fan, W. Ni, Q. Yang, Y. Wu, Z. Bi
The effect of O2 impurity on surface morphology of polycrystalline W during low-energy and high-flux He+ irradiation
Fusion Engineering and Design, vol. 139, pp. 96-103
The interaction between the impurities (such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen) and the plasma-facing materials (PFMs) can profoundly influence the performance and service of the PFMs. In this paper, we investigated the influence of oxygen (O2) impurity in the helium radio frequency (RF) plasma on the surface morphology of polycrystalline tungsten (W) irradiated at the surface temperature of 1450 ± 50 K and the ion energy of 100 eV. The pressure ratio of O2 to He (R) in RF source varied from 4.0 × 10−6 to 9.0 × 10-2. The total irradiation flux and fluence were ˜1.2 × 1022 ions·m-2·s-1 and ˜1.0 × 1026 ions·m-2, respectively. After He+ irradiation, the specimen surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that with increasing R from 4.0 × 10−6 to 9.0 × 10-2 the thickness of nano-fuzz layer at the W surface was thinner and thinner, accompanied by the formation of rod-like structures. The erosion yield increased from 5.2 × 10-4 to 2.3 × 10-2 W/ion when R varied from 4.0 × 10-6 to 9.0 × 10-2. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that tungsten oxides were formed at the near surface of specimens when R exceeded 1.8 × 10-2. The erosion yield measurements revealed that in addition to surface physical sputtering process, the chemical erosion process could occur due to the interaction between oxygen-containing species and W at the surface. The results indicated that the presence of O2 impurity in He plasma can obviously affect the surface microstructure of W. The study suggested that O2 impurity can effectively reduce the growth of nano-fuzz structures.
GesundAngewandte GesundheitswissenschaftenEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
N. Moller, Irmgard Tischner
Young people’s perceptions of fat counsellors: “How can THAT help me?”
Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 34-53
Being fat is widely recognised as a stigmatised identity which disproportionately impacts women, both personally and professionally. Women are numerically dominant as therapy practitioners, and we use this group to explore the ways a “fat counsellor” is imagined in the context of counselling. A qualitative story completion task, about a woman starting therapy, was presented to 203 British young people ages 15–24. Participants were 75% female, 88% white, 93% heterosexual, and 98% able-bodied. The story stem did not specify the sex of the counsellor, who was identified as fat; the vast majority of stories assumed the counsellor was female. Overall, fatness was perceived as negatively affecting therapy and the counsellor’s professional credibility because fatness was equated with a lack of psychological health, which rendered fat counsellors professionally “unfit.” This finding extends the literature on “weight bias” in professional settings and has implications for counsellors of all body sizes.
GesundAngewandte GesundheitswissenschaftenEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
Tomorrow is the start of the rest of their life – so who cares about health? Exploring constructions of weight-loss motivations and health using story completion
Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 54-73
In Western societies, health is closely associated with body weight and weight loss, achieved through individual health behaviour. I examined such associations in constructions of weight-loss motivations and health in stories generated using the novel method of story completion. The story stem featured either a female or male protagonist deciding to lose weight; 148 women and 22 men (ages 18–24) provided stories in response. A social constructionist thematic analysis identified five themes: health as clothing size and means to an end; weight-loss activity as good for every woman; tomorrow is going to be the start of the rest of their life; tell me when I’m okay — it’s not about wellbeing; and weight loss as signifier of the “true self.” Considering the adverse social and psychological consequences reflected in the stories and the longstanding elusiveness of successful weight-loss methods, I support calls to review the dominant weight-focused approach to public health.
NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
F. Gabrielli, W. Maschek, Rui Li, C. Matzerath Boccaccini, M. Flad, S. Gianfelici, B. Vezzoni, A. Rineiski
Probabilistic evaluation of the energetics upper bound during the transition phase of an unprotected loss of flow accident for a sodium cooled fast reactor by using a Phenomenological Relationship Diagram
Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 341, no. 146-154
One of the main research goals of the GEN-IV systems is enhancing their safety compared with the former Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) designs. A key issue is the capability of accidents prevention as well as of demonstrating that their consequences do not violate the safety criteria. In order to fulfill such requirements, risk analyses of severe core disruptive accidents are performed. Since the beginning of the SFR development, Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs) have played an outstanding role. Numerous safety analyses have been performed for developing and licensing past SFR designs and nowadays a large database of results is available. In particular, a large amount of results of the mechanistic SIMMER-II and SIMMER-III/IV analyses for various core designs and different power classes is available at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The current paper describes the probabilistic approach based on the Phenomenological Relationship Diagram (PRD), which is used to evaluate the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of the thermal energy release during the transition phase of an unprotected loss of flow accident scenario for a SFR. The technique allows taking into account the mechanistic nature of the accident scenario. In fact, the available results of the mechanistic analyses of HCDAs in SFRs are used to assess the PDFs of the dominant phenomena affecting the thermal energy release, which are propagated in the PRD by employing a Monte Carlo method.
F. Nitsch, K. Gruber, Luis Ramirez Camargo
Assessing variables of regional reanalysis data sets relevant for modelling small-scale renewable energy systems
Renewable Energy, vol. 133, no. April, pp. 1468-1478
An accurate resource availability estimation is vital for proper location, sizing and economic viability of renewable energy plants. Large photovoltaic (PV) and wind installations undergo a long and exhaustive planning process that would imply unacceptably high costs for developers of small-scale installations. In a context of abolition of feed-in tariffs, electricity feed-in restricted by grid capacity constraints and storage systems being commercialized at lower costs, the acquisition of high quality solar radiation and wind speed data becomes important also for planners of small scale installations. These data allow the characterization of short-term and inter-annual variability of the resources availability. Global reanalysis data sets provide long time series of these variables with temporal resolutions that can be as high as one hour and at no cost for the final user. However, due to the coarse spatial resolution and relatively low accuracy these products only provide an inferior alternative for data retrieval compared to e.g. satellite derived radiation data sets or advanced interpolation methods for wind speed data. The COSMO-REA6 and COSMOS-REA2 regional reanalysis overcome this limitation by increasing the resolution of the reanalysis to six and two kilometres respectively. The accuracy of these data sets for variables with high relevancy for meteorology, such as rainfall, has been assessed with satisfactory results but an independent evaluation for variables relevant for renewable energy generation has not been performed yet. This work presents an assessment of the variables of these data sets that have been made available to the public until November 2017. This assessment is performed for the area of the federal state of Bavaria in Germany and whole Czech Republic using data of the Bavarian agro-meteorological network and the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Accuracy indicators are calculated for horizontal global radiation or cloud coverage (depending on data availability from the weather stations) and wind speeds at 10 meters height. While there are important differences between weather stations and cloud coverage data, the results for wind speeds and global solar irradiance are satisfactory for most of the locations. For certain locations widely used indicators such as the Pearson’s correlation coefficient reach values above 0.8 for wind speeds and above 0.9 for global solar irradiance and the mean biased error is consistently lower than 10 W/m2 and can be as low as 0.3 W/m2 for the irradiance data and is, with a few exceptions, lower than 2 m/s in Germany and lower than 1 m/s in the Czech Republic for wind speed data. A total of eight indicators for the hourly data in the period between 1995 and 2015 are calculated, presented, discussed and compared against international literature dealing with data accuracy for solar irradiance and wind speed data sets.
M. Volgger, Marcus Herntrei, H. Pechlaner, S. Pichler
Cooperative resorts: An analysis of creative integration strategies in community destinations
Journal of Destination Marketing & Management (JDMM), vol. 11, no. March, pp. 200-210
Hotel resorts may be understood as stand-alone, large-scale tourist operations. Hotel resort development provides a sometimes criticised but repeatedly followed path towards efficient and effective tourism operations. However, a strong regimentation of quantitative hotel growth complicated such hotel resort development in the region of South Tyrol, Italy, and has prompted some hotel businesses to build alternative strategic alliances. These alliances can be regarded as ‘cooperative resorts’ and characteristically include the integration of spatially divided and legally autonomous hotels within community destinations. The aim of this paper is to explore the nature of these observed cooperative resorts, to trace historical origins and reasons for their appearance and to investigate their impact on broader community destination networks. Based on a series of qualitative interviews, the paper finds that in contrast to enclave-type hotel resort models, cooperative resorts have a reduced tendency to segregate themselves from the respective destination networks, but rather affect their balance of power and impact on destination leadership.