R. Kircher, R. Palka, E. Fritz, K. Eiler, M. Witt, L. Blow, Johannes Klühspies
Electromagnetic fields related to high speed transportation systems
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 152-166
Issue: The potential health risks on passengers and the environment related to electromagnetic fields caused by the operation of electrically driven high speed transportation systems has become a major issue. Especially the magnetic flux density or induction can generate physiological effects in body tissues. Aim: In this paper, we compare calculated and experimental values of electromagnetic fields in rail-wheel systems such as ICE with the Maglev-systems Transrapid and the JR Maglev-system, based on available data. Method: To estimate the impact on passengers, the field contributions generated by the power supply system as well as by the drive and suspension systems are taken into account. For the comparison, the peak values of the electromagnetic fields have been considered. Results: The results show, that there are no health risks from the electric fields. Regarding the magnetic induction, the calculated the peak values remain well below the limits given by national regulations. In the case of the Transrapid and the JR Maglev system, the measured peak values in the environment and inside the vehicle depend on the levitation and the guidance technology and the geometrical parameters. The JR Maglev system requires effective magnetic shielding measures which are connected with heavy materials. Since such materials may have a negative influence on the energy balance and the economics of operation, R&D efforts are focusing on the optimization of materials and the structure of shields. Conclusion: In high speed transportation systems there are no potential risks from electrical fields. Regarding magnetic fields, the induction generated by the power supply and the drive system remain well below the frequency dependent limits. The situation is different for magnetic levitation systems, depending on the suspension and guidance technology. Especially the JR Maglev requires effective shielding measures. The shielding materials may have a negative impact on the energy balance.
E. Fritz, Johannes Klühspies, R. Kircher, M. Witt, L. Blow
Energy consumption of track-based high-speed trains: maglev systems in comparison with wheel-rail systems
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3s1, pp. 134-155
Background: The energy consumption of a high-speed system is an important part of its total operational costs. This paper compares the secondary energy demand of different wheel-rail systems, such as ICE, TGV and Shinkansen, and maglev systems, such as Transrapid and Chuo Shinkansen.
In the past, energy values of systems with different conditions (train configuration, dimension, capacity, maximum speed) were frequently compared. The comparative values were often represented by the specific energy consumption based on passenger capacity and line-kilometer values.
Aim: The goal is to find a way to compare the specific energy consumption of different high-speed systems without any distortion of results.
Methods: A comparison of energy values based on normative usable areas inside the high-speed systems will be described and evaluated in this paper, transforming the results to a more distortion-free comparison of energy consumption of different systems.
Results: The results show the energy consumption as an important characteristic parameter of high-speed transportation systems based on an objective comparison and give ranges of expected energy demand of different systems dependent on maximum speed level.
Conclusion: Up to the design speed of wheel-rail systems there are slight advantages in terms of energy consumption for the Transrapid maglev. From the perspective of energy consumption under consideration to reduce travel time, high-speed maglev systems represent a promising option for new railway projects. However, a project-specific system decision must be based on a complete life-cycle cost analysis, including investment cost
M. Wenk, Johannes Klühspies, L. Blow, R. Kircher, E. Fritz, M. Witt, Martina Hekler
Practical Investigation of Future Perspectives and Limitations of Maglev Technologies: Results of an International Survey among Transport Experts and Specialists Maglev
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3 Suppl. 1, pp. 85-104
Results of an International Survey among Transport Experts and Specialists Maglev.
With the aim of tracking current trends in the market perspectives of magnetic levitation, or maglev technologies, the non-profit International Maglev Board conducted a primary study in the spring of 2018 among maglev specialists and transportation professionals. More than 1 000 professionals took part in the survey. Main topics of the study are questions comparing the suitability of conventional wheel-on-rail and maglev technologies according to application areas. Predicted opportunities and developments in maglev technology, acceptance issues and research needs are analyzed. The results are broken down by expertise and nationality of the participants. This short version presents selected findings of the survey in compressed form.
Background: There is an obvious need for information on international trends in the application of Maglev transport technologies. The study attempts to grasp the global dimension of magnetic levitation developments in a structured way.
Aim: To track current trends in magnetic levitation transport system innovation. Identify perspectives, research tasks and implementation barriers. Comparison of magnetic levitation systems with steel wheel systems. Analysis of the key topics of the debate.
Methods: Primary study in spring 2018 among 1 058 maglev specialists and transport experts. Internet-based online survey.
Results: The ratings vary greatly according to the expertise and origin of the respondents. In certain fields of application, wheel-rail systems remain the preferred transport technology. But in certain other fields of application, maglev technologies have become preferred over conventional steel-wheel-rail by a majority of transport professionals. This is particularly the case for high-speed maglev transport and for the new application of maglev elevators in buildings. At the same time, many respondents see a continuing need for research.
Conclusion: Overall, there is a differentiated picture. Respondents from North and South America, Russia and Asia are on average particularly open to an implementation of certain maglev technologies.
Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)
E. Fritz, R. Kircher, R. Palka, M. Witt, L. Blow, K. Eiler
Electromagnetic Fields related to High Speed Transportation Systems
ТРАНСПОРТНЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ (Transportation Systems and Technology) - Conference Proceedings of Maglev2018 (5-8 September, 2018; St. Petersburg, Russia)