GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
Digital Health Revolution: Has the Future of Medicine Arrived Yet?
7th IEEE International Conference on e-Health and Bioengineering (EHB): Smarter technology for a better health, Iași, Romania
Mareike Hechinger, A. Büscher
Pflegerische Beziehung im ambulanten Pflegesetting
QuPuG - Journal für Qualitative Forschung in Pflege- und Gesundheitswissenschaft, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 82-91
Die Beziehungsgestaltung zwischen Pflegenden und pflegebedürftigen Menschen ist ein wichtiger Aspekt der ambulanten Pflege, der bislang kaum erforscht ist. In einer qualitativen Studie wurde die pflegerische Beziehungsgestaltung im deutschen, ambulanten Pflegesetting untersucht. Die Studie orientierte sich an den Prinzipien der Grounded-Theory nach Strauss und Corbin. Acht Interviews mit beruflich Pflegenden und 24 teilnehmende Beobachtungen wurden durchgeführt. Dem Ergebnis zufolge investieren Pflegende zu Beginn in den Beziehungsaufbau, um einen Zugang zum Gegenüber zu erhalten und förderliche sowie hinderliche Einflussfaktoren auf die Beziehung auszubalancieren. Die Ausrichtung der Beziehung auf dieser Ebene ist funktional in enger Anlehnung an pflegerische Tätigkeiten. Ausgehend von einem erfolgreichen Beziehungsaufbau auf der funktionalen Ebene können Pflegende optional die Beziehung auf einer menschlich-privaten Ebene gestalten. Diese ist geprägt von Reziprozität, dem Zeigen von Gefühlen und verstärktem Sich privat involvieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es einer Sensibilisierung der Pflegepraxis für Beziehungsentwicklung bedarf. Es gilt, bereits in der Ausbildung Fähigkeiten zur Reflexion und Abgrenzung zu fördern, damit Pflegende Beziehungen bewusst gestalten lernen.
Mareike Hechinger, H. Mayer, A. Fringer
Kenneth Gergen’s concept of multi-being: an application to the nurse-patient relationship
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, vol. 22, no. Published: 15 April 2019, pp. 599-611
The nurse–patient relationship is of great significance for both nurses and patients. The purpose of this article is to gain an understanding of how the individual is constituted through a focus on the execution of the patient’s and nurse’s role in the joint relationship. The article represents a social-constructionist consideration using Kenneth Gergen’s concept of multi-being. Gergen’s notions of the self as a multi-being focuses on the individual’s relational character through former relationships and social interactions. Gergen’s concept is applied onto nurses and patients as individuals to gain an understanding of the broader institutional and social context of each role and their interactions within the nurse–patient relationship. The article focuses on the nurse–patient relationship in general with regard to specific challenges in the home care setting. Various demands and experiences from a myriad of past relationships merge as potential actions for nurses and patients during the forming of a relationship. Nurses as multi-beings see themselves confronted with guidelines and legal conditions, their own as well as the patients’ expectations and the actual possible forming of a relationship in the light of daily nursing care. Patients as multi-beings experience an extended social environment that comprises the nurse–patient relationship while simultaneously having to cope with illness and increasing care dependency within their own homes. Discrepancies can be observed in the relationship with regard to the inherent human qualities, the demands of forming a relationship, and the actual relationship arising due to framework conditions.
GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
I. Meyhöfer, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, M. Steffens, U. Ettinger
Effects of nicotine on smooth pursuit eye movements in healthy non-smokers
Psychopharmacology, vol. 236, pp. 2259-2271
The non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine has been argued to improve attention via enhanced filtering of irrelevant stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis in the context of smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEMs), an oculomotor function previously shown to improve with nicotine in some but not all studies.
In order to test whether nicotine improves performance particularly when the inhibition of distracting stimuli is required, SPEM was elicited in conditions with or without peripheral distractors. Additionally, different target frequencies were employed in order to parametrically vary general processing demands on the SPEM system.
Healthy adult non-smokers (N = 18 females, N = 13 males) completed a horizontal sinusoidal SPEM task at different target frequencies (0.2 Hz, 0.4 Hz, 0.6 Hz) in the presence or absence of peripheral distractors in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design using a 2 mg nicotine gum.
Nicotine increased peak pursuit gain relative to placebo (p < .001), but an interaction with distractor condition (p = .001) indicated that this effect was most pronounced in the presence of distractors. Catch-up saccade frequency was reduced by nicotine (p = .01), particularly at higher target frequencies (two-way interaction, p = .04). However, a three-way interaction (p = .006) indicated that the reduction with nicotine was strongest at the highest target frequency (0.6 Hz) only without distractors, whereas in the presence of distractors, it was strongest at 0.4-Hz target frequency. There were no effects of nicotine on subjective state measures.
Together, these findings support a role of both distractor inhibition and general processing load in the effects of nicotine on smooth pursuit.
GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, N. Petrovsky, P.-M. Schmidt, P. Trautner, B. Weber, B. Sträter, U. Ettinger
Effects of Nicotine and Atomoxetine on Brain Function During Response Inhibition
European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 2 (February), pp. 235-246
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine and the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor atomoxetine are widely studied substances due to their propensity to alleviate cognitive deficits in psychiatric and neurological patients and their beneficial effects on some aspects of cognitive functions in healthy individuals. However, despite growing evidence of acetylcholine-noradrenaline interactions, there are only very few direct comparisons of the two substances. Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine and atomoxetine on response inhibition in the stop-signal task and we characterised the neural correlates of these effects using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T. Nicotine (7 mg dermal patch) and atomoxetine (60 mg per os) were applied to N = 26 young, healthy adults in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, within-subjects design. BOLD images were collected during a stop-signal task that controlled for infrequency of stop trials. There were no drug effects on behavioural performance or subjective state measures. However, there was a pronounced upregulation of activation in bilateral prefrontal and left parietal cortex following nicotine during successful compared to unsuccessful stop trials. The effect of nicotine on BOLD during failed stop trials was correlated across individuals with a measure of trait impulsivity. Atomoxetine, however, had no discernible effects on BOLD. We conclude that nicotine effects on brain function during inhibitory control are most pronounced in individuals with higher levels of impulsivity. This finding is compatible with previous evidence of nicotine effects on stop-signal task performance in highly impulsive individuals and implicates the nAChR in the neural basis of impulsivity.
Monica I. Ciolacu
Education 4.0: Learning Analytics in der Lehre mit Künstliche Intelligenz und Sensoren
60-minütiger Workshop (Focus Group I: KI in der Bildung - Learning Analytics)
Leadership & Innovation Talk 2019: Do you trust this Robot? - Künstliche Intelligenz fordert uns heraus, München