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Suche nach „[2016]“ hat 250 Publikationen gefunden
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    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    M. Steffens, B. Becker, C. Neumann, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, I. Meyhöfer, B. Weber, M. Mehta, R. Hurlemann, U. Ettinger

    Effects of Ketamine on Brain Function During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    Human Brain Mapping, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 4047-4060

    2016

    DOI: 10.1002/hbm.23294

    Abstract anzeigen

    The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been proposed to model symptoms of psychosis. Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are an established biomarker of schizophrenia. SPEM performance has been shown to be impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and during ketamine administration in healthy volunteers. However, the neural mechanisms mediating SPEM impairments during ketamine administration are unknown. In a counter‐balanced, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind, within‐subjects design, 27 healthy participants received intravenous racemic ketamine (100 ng/mL target plasma concentration) on one of two assessment days and placebo (intravenous saline) on the other. Participants performed a block‐design SPEM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla field strength. Self‐ratings of psychosis‐like experiences were obtained using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Ketamine administration induced psychosis‐like symptoms, during ketamine infusion, participants showed increased ratings on the PSI dimensions cognitive disorganization, delusional thinking, perceptual distortion and mania. Ketamine led to robust deficits in SPEM performance, which were accompanied by reduced blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the SPEM network including primary visual cortex, area V5 and the right frontal eye field (FEF), compared to placebo. A measure of connectivity with V5 and FEF as seed regions, however, was not significantly affected by ketamine. These results are similar to the deviations found in schizophrenia patients. Our findings support the role of glutamate dysfunction in impaired smooth pursuit performance and the use of ketamine as a pharmacological model of psychosis, especially when combined with oculomotor biomarkers.

    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, I. Meyhöfer, M. Steffens, B. Weber, M. Aydine, V. Kumari, R. Hurlemann, U. Ettinger

    Neural Effects of Methylphenidate and Nicotine During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NeuroImage, vol. 141, no. November, pp. 52-59

    2016

    DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.07.012

    Abstract anzeigen

    Introduction Nicotine and methylphenidate are putative cognitive enhancers in healthy and patient populations. Although they stimulate different neurotransmitter systems, they have been shown to enhance performance on overlapping measures of attention. So far, there has been no direct comparison of the effects of these two stimulants on behavioural performance or brain function in healthy humans. Here, we directly compare the two compounds using a well-established oculomotor biomarker in order to explore common and distinct behavioural and neural effects. Methods Eighty-two healthy male non-smokers performed a smooth pursuit eye movement task while lying in an fMRI scanner. In a between-subjects, double-blind design, subjects either received placebo (placebo patch and capsule), nicotine (7 mg nicotine patch and placebo capsule), or methylphenidate (placebo patch and 40 mg methylphenidate capsule). Results There were no significant drug effects on behavioural measures. At the neural level, methylphenidate elicited higher activation in left frontal eye field compared to nicotine, with an intermediate response under placebo. Discussion The reduced activation of task-related regions under nicotine could be associated with more efficient neural processing, while increased hemodynamic response under methylphenidate is interpretable as enhanced processing of task-relevant networks. Together, these findings suggest dissociable neural effects of these putative cognitive enhancers.

    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    T. Talanow, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, M. Steffens, I. Meyhöfer, B. Weber, N. Smyrnis, U. Ettinger

    Facing Competition: Neural Mechanisms Underlying Parallel Programming of Antisaccades and Prosaccades

    Brain and Cognition, vol. 107, no. August, pp. 37-47

    2016

    DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.05.006

    Abstract anzeigen

    The antisaccade task is a prominent tool to investigate the response inhibition component of cognitive control. Recent theoretical accounts explain performance in terms of parallel programming of exogenous and endogenous saccades, linked to the horse race metaphor. Previous studies have tested the hypothesis of competing saccade signals at the behavioral level by selectively slowing the programming of endogenous or exogenous processes e.g. by manipulating the probability of antisaccades in an experimental block. To gain a better understanding of inhibitory control processes in parallel saccade programming, we analyzed task-related eye movements and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T from 16 healthy participants in a mixed antisaccade and prosaccade task. The frequency of antisaccade trials was manipulated across blocks of high (75%) and low (25%) antisaccade frequency. In blocks with high antisaccade frequency, antisaccade latencies were shorter and error rates lower whilst prosaccade latencies were longer and error rates were higher. At the level of BOLD, activations in the task-related saccade network (left inferior parietal lobe, right inferior parietal sulcus, left precentral gyrus reaching into left middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal junction) and deactivations in components of the default mode network (bilateral temporal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) compensated increased cognitive control demands. These findings illustrate context dependent mechanisms underlying the coordination of competing decision signals in volitional gaze control.

    DigitalBauingenieurwesen und Umwelttechnik

    Vortrag

    Gerd Maurer

    Integrale Planung mit BIM: Voraussetzung für Industrie 4.0 Potentiale der Digitalisierung von Produktionsgebäuden von der der digitalen Planung zum digitalisierten Gebäude: Industriebau 4.0

    Talk

    2016

    DigitalBauingenieurwesen und Umwelttechnik

    Vortrag

    Gerd Maurer

    Digitalisierung der Planung mit BIM – Architekten und Juristen im Dialog

    Talk

    2016

    DigitalBauingenieurwesen und Umwelttechnik

    Vortrag

    Gerd Maurer

    Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung der Planung auf Baubetriebliche Prozesse

    Talk

    2016

    Bauingenieurwesen und Umwelttechnik

    Vortrag

    Gerd Maurer

    Schalungseinsatz im Ingenieurbau

    Talk

    2016

    DigitalAngewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Pierre Lebreton, Alexander Raake, Marcus Barkowsky

    Evaluation of aesthetic appeal with regard of user\textquoterights knowledge

    Proceedings of SPIE Conference Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2016 (HVEI 2016)

    2016

    DigitalAngewandte Informatik

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Y. Rai, Marcus Barkowsky, P. Le Callet

    Role of spatio-temporal distortions in the visual periphery in disrupting natural attention deployment

    Proceedings of SPIE Conference Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2016 (HVEI 2016)

    2016

    DOI: 10.2352/ISSN.2470-1173.2016.16.HVEI-117

    Abstract anzeigen

    Human visual system based quality metrics and perceptually optimized video coders often use principles of foveation and saliency to weigh the distortion in certain regions more heavily or hide the artefacts in regions where they are less noticeable. These approaches however fail to consider the impact such a tuning produces on the non-salient surroundings usually incident on the para, peri and extra-peri foveal visual regions. Vision studies on the other hand, have highlighted the enhanced sensitivity of these peripheral visual regions towards spatio-temporal artefacts: more so in the supra-threshold region. Because such analysis has often been performed using controlled synthetic stimuli and forced fixation based experimental approaches, that assume perfect luminance adaptation, tracking and semantic comprehension of underlying content, a thorough understanding of the impact of peripheral disturbances in a natural viewing scenario is missing. The present work therefore uses a Gaze Contingent Display to study the impact of spatiotemporal distortions in the peri foveal and extraperi foveal regions in a free-viewing scenario, using natural scene stimuli. Using four state of the art gaze analysis-techniques to analyze the gaze data collected from 48 observers, spatio-temporally and semantically, confirms and extends our previous understanding of distortion perception in the periphery. Our observations indicate that non-flickering spatial distortions seem to have less of a disruptive effect in the visual periphery as compared to the temporally flickering artefacts and second, the threshold at which disruptions begin to occur is higher in the visual periphery as compared to that of the fovea, both of these effects being strongly scene dependent and prone to natural scene masking. The results highlight the need for sufficient consideration of the supra-threshold effects of peripheral distortions, in order to achieve an optimum perceptual experience.

    Angewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Buch (Monographie)

    G. Titelbach, Wolfgang Nagl

    Anreizstruktur des österreichischen Steuer-Transfer-Systems

    Studie im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums der Finanzen (unveröffentlicht)

    2016

    Angewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    R. Lehmann, Wolfgang Nagl

    Zuwanderung von Schweizerinnen und Schweizern: eine deutsche Perspektive

    Politorbis e-Dossier - Zeitschrift zur Aussenpolitik, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 25-27

    2016

    Abstract anzeigen

    Zuwanderung aus den Nachbarländern kann für Deutschland wichtige wirtschafts- und demografiepolitische Implikationen entfalten. In diesem Beitrag soll im Besonderen die regional unterschiedliche Siedlungsstruktur von Schweizerinnen und Schweizern in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland untersucht werden.

    Angewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    S. Müllbacher, Wolfgang Nagl

    Umverteilung in verschiedenen Pensionssystemen für Österreich

    Wirtschaftsdienst - Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 140-147

    2016

    DOI: 10.1007/s10273-016-1939-7

    Abstract anzeigen

    Zusammenfassung 2004 wurde in Österreich das Allgemeine Pensionsgesetz beschlossen, das die gesamte Erwerbsbiografie zur Berechnung der Pensionen heranzieht. In diesem Beitrag simulieren die Autoren vier verschiedene Szenarien, um die Umverteilungsströme im österreichischen Pensionssystem in Abhängigkeit vom gewählten System zu analysieren. Einen besonderen Fokus legen sie schließlich darauf, die implizite Umverteilung innerhalb des Systems von der expliziten Umverteilung, z.B. aufgrund von Kindererziehungszeiten, zu trennen. Abstract Using a state-of-the-art microsimulation model, we analyse the redistributional effects of four different pension systems for Austria: the status quo, the new pension account system (APG), and two versions of a Notional Defined Contribution (NDC) system — one with and the other without non-contribution-based pension benefits. We identify the largest redistribution in the status quo. Women, low-income earners and persons with limited years of contributions benefit the most. The redistribution is reduced in the APG and nearly eliminated in the NDC system. We disentangle implicit and explicit redistribution in the APG system. The relative share of implicit redistribution decreases with income, whereas the absolute value of redistribution increases.

    DigitalAngewandte WirtschaftswissenschaftenTC Grafenau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Michael Scholz, M. Franz, O. Hinz

    The Ambiguous Identifier Clustering Technique

    Electron Markets, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 143-156

    2016

    DOI: 10.1007/s12525-016-0217-2

    Abstract anzeigen

    Investigations of online transaction data often face the problem that entries for identical products cannot be identified as such. There is, for example, typically no unique product identifier in online auctions; retailers make their offers at price comparison sites hardly comparable and online stores often use different identifiers for virtually equal products. Existing studies typically use data sets that are restricted to one or only a few products in order to avoid product heterogeneity if a unique product identifier is not available. We propose the Ambiguous Identifier Clustering Technique (AICT) that identifies online transaction data that refer to virtually the same product. Based on a data set of eBay auctions, we demonstrate that AICT clusters online transactions for identical products with high accuracy. We further show how researchers benefit from AICT and the reduced product heterogeneity when analyzing data with econometric models.

    DigitalAngewandte WirtschaftswissenschaftenTC Grafenau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Michael Scholz

    R Package clickstream : Analyzing Clickstream Data with Markov Chains

    Journal of Statistical Software, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 1-17

    2016

    DOI: 10.18637/jss.v074.i04

    Abstract anzeigen

    Clickstream analysis is a useful tool for investigating consumer behavior, market research and software testing. I present the clickstream package which provides functionality for reading, clustering, analyzing and writing clickstreams in R. The package allows for a modeling of lists of clickstreams as zero-, first- and higher-order Markov chains. I illustrate the application of clickstream for a list of representative clickstreams from an online store.

    DigitalAngewandte WirtschaftswissenschaftenTC Grafenau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Michael Scholz

    A Note on the Power of Multiattribute One-switch Utility Functions

    Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, vol. 23, no. 1-2, pp. 63-71

    2016

    DOI: 10.1002/mcda.1560

    Abstract anzeigen

    One‐switch utility functions model situations in which the preference between two alternatives switches only once as the outcome of one attribute of both alternatives changes from low to high. Recent research cites evidence that the sum of exponential functions (sumex) is the most convincing type for modelling one‐switch utility functions. Sumex functions allow to model exactly one preferential switch and they are convenient for estimating one‐switch utility functions. However, it is unclear so far if sumex functions are suitable to model preferential switches that are perceivable by a decision maker. This paper first analyses how different the utility of two alternatives before and after a preferential can be modelled with sumex functions given that the preferential switch is caused by a particular attribute outcome improvement. It thereafter investigates how accurately decision makers perceive such utility differences.

    DigitalDEG-DLM1IQW

    Buch (Monographie)

    Karina Fisch, Martina Reitmaier-Krebs

    Flexibles Lernen

    Didaktisches Konzept im Projekt DEG-DLM

    2016

    DigitalDEG-DLM1IQW

    Buch (Monographie)

    Martina Reitmaier-Krebs

    Begleitforschung zum Brückenkurs Mathematik 2015

    2016

    DigitalDEG-DLM1IQW

    Buch (Monographie)

    Susanne Lermer, Gabriele Weng

    Ergebnisse der Begleitforschung zum Brückenkurs Physik im Projekt DEG-DLM

    2016

    DigitalMobilAngewandte InformatikTC Grafenau

    Vortrag

    Christian Kluge

    eDorf - das Dorf der Zukunft - Menschen, Pendlerströme und E-Mobilitätsoptionen

    E-WALD Projekttag, Deggendorf

    2016

    DigitalMobilAngewandte InformatikTC Grafenau

    Vortrag

    Christian Kluge

    Statistics instead of Stopover - Range Predictions for Electric Vehicles

    OR2016 - Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society (GOR), Hamburg

    2016