S. Goisser, S. Wittmann, Michael Fernandes, H. Mempel, C. Ulrichs
Comparison of colorimeter and different portable food-scanners for non-destructive prediction of lycopene content in tomato fruit
Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 167, no. September
Lycopene, the red colored carotenoid in tomatoes, has various health benefits for humans due to its capability of scavenging free radicals. Traditionally, the quantification of lycopene requires an elaborate extraction process combined with HPLC analysis within the laboratory. Recent studies focused simpler methods for determining lycopene and utilized spectroscopic measurement methods. The aim of this study was to compare non-destructive methods for the prediction of lycopene by using color values from colorimeter measurements and Vis/NIR spectra recorded with three commercially available and portable Vis/NIR spectrometers, so called food-scanners. Tomatoes of five different ripening stages (green to red) as well as tomatoes stored up to 22 days after harvest were used for modeling. After measurement of color values and collection of Vis/NIR spectra the corresponding lycopene content was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Applying exponential regression models yielded very good prediction of lycopene for color values L*, a*, a*/b* and the tomato color index of 0.94, 0.90, 0.90 and 0.91, respectively. Color value b* was not a suitable predictor for lycopene content, whereas the (a*/b*)² value had the best linear fit of 0.87. In comparison to color measurements, the cross-validated prediction models developed for all three food-scanners had coefficients of determination (r²CV) ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. Food-scanners also can be used for additional measurements of internal fruit quality, and therefore have great potential for fruit quality assessment by measuring a multitude of important fruit traits in one single scan.
NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTC Teisnach Sensorik
Günther Ruhl, S. Wittmann, M. König, D. Neumaier
The integration of graphene into microelectronic devices
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 8, pp. 1056-1064
Since 2004 the field of graphene research has attracted increasing interest worldwide. Especially the integration of graphene into microelectronic devices has the potential for numerous applications. Therefore, we summarize the current knowledge on this aspect. Surveys show that considerable progress was made in the field of graphene synthesis. However, the central issue consists of the availability of techniques suitable for production for the deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates. Besides, the encapsulation of graphene for further processing while maintaining its properties poses a challenge. Regarding the graphene/metal contact intensive research was done and recently substantial advancements were made towards contact resistances applicable for electronic devices. Generally speaking the crucial issues for graphene integration are identified today and the corresponding research tasks can be clearly defined.