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Suche nach „[S.] [McCarthy]“ hat 5 Publikationen gefunden
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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    V. Meyer, C. Kuhlicke, J. Luther, S. Fuchs, S. Priest, Wolfgang Dorner, K. Serrhini, J. Pardoe, S. McCarthy, J. Seidel, S. Scheuer, G. Palka

    Recommendations for user-specific enhancement of flood maps

    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1701-1716

    2012

    Abstract anzeigen

    The European Union Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood maps for high risk areas in all European member states by 2013. However, the current practice of flood mapping in Europe still shows some deficits. Firstly, flood maps are frequently seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that, for example, local stocks of knowledge are not incorporated. Secondly, the contents of flood maps often do not match the requirements of the end-users. Finally, flood maps are often designed and visualised in a way that cannot be easily understood by residents at risk and/or that is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and event management. The RISK MAP project examined how end-user participation in the mapping process may be used to overcome these barriers and enhance the communicative power of flood maps, fundamentally increasing their effectiveness. Based on empirical findings from a participatory approach that incorporated interviews, workshops and eye-tracking tests, conducted in five European case studies, this paper outlines recommendations for user-specific enhancements of flood maps. More specific, recommendations are given with regard to (1) appropriate stakeholder participation processes, which allow incorporating local knowledge and preferences, (2) the improvement of the contents of flood maps by considering user-specific needs and (3) the improvement of the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly and understandable risk maps for the user groups concerned. Furthermore, "idealised" maps for different user groups are presented: for strategic planning, emergency management and the public.

    TC Freyung

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    J. Luther, V. Meyer, C. Kuhlicke, S. Scheuer, H. Unnerstall, S. Fuchs, Wolfgang Dorner, J. Seidel, S. Priest, S. McCarthy, et al.

    Improving flood maps to foster participation and raise flood risk

    Chapter 206

    Comprehensive flood risk management, Boca Raton

    2012

    ISBN: 978-0-415-62144-1

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTC Weißenburg

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    G. Kofod, H. Stoyanov, M. Kollosche, S. Risse, H. Ragusch, D. McCarthy, R. Wache, Dmitry Rychkov, M. Dansachmüller

    Molecular level materials design for improvements of actuation properties of dielectric elastomer actuators

    Proceedings of SPIE 7976

    2011

    DOI: 10.1117/12.880981

    Abstract anzeigen

    Dielectric elastomer actuators are soft electro-mechanical transducers with possible uses in robotic, orthopaedic and automotive applications. The active material must be soft and have a high ability to store electrical energy. Hence, three properties of the elastic medium in a dielectric elastomer actuator affect the actuation properties directly: dielectric constant, electric breakdown strength, and mechanical stiffness. The dielectric constant of a given elastomer can be improved by mixing it with other components with a higher dielectric constant, which can be classified as insulating or conducting. In this paper, an overview of all approaches proposed so far for dielectric constant improvement in these soft materials will be provided. Insulating particles such as TiO2 nanoparticles can raise the dielectric constant, but may also lead to stiffening of the composite, such that the overall actuation is lowered. It is shown here how a chemical coating of the TiO2 nanoparticles leads to verifiable improvements. Conducting material can also lead to improvements, as has been shown in several cases. Simple percolation, relying on the random distribution of conducting nanoparticles, commonly leads to drastic lowering of the breakdown strength. On the other hand, conducting polymer can also be employed, as has been demonstrated. We show here how an approach based on a specific chemical reaction between the conducting polymer and the elastomer network molecules solves the problem of premature breakdown which is otherwise typically found.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTC Weißenburg

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    G. Kofod, H. Stoyanov, M. Kollosche, S. Risse, H. Ragusch, Dmitry Rychkov, M. Dansachmüller, D. McCarthy

    Nano-scale Materials Science for Soft Dielectrics: Composites for Dielectric Elastomer Actuators

    Proceedings of the 2010 10th IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics (ICSD)

    2010

    DOI: 10.1109/ICSD.2010.5568262

    Abstract anzeigen

    Electro-mechanical transducers based on soft elastomers can be improved by suitable manipulation of dielectric properties, mechanical stiffness and electric breakdown strength. The dielectric constant of an elastomer can be improved by mixing with other components with a higher dielectric constant, and both insulating or conducting filler materials may be employed. We present our results on insulating nanoparticulate TiO 2 with various chemical modifications, which may lead to devices with improved properties. Conducting nanoparticles such as carbon black may lead to percolation-related enhancement, though with strongly detrimental side effects. On the other hand, a “molecular composite” approach, in which the conducting nanoparticles are grafted chemically to the backbone, appears valuable.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTC Weißenburg

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    G. Kofod, D. McCarthy, H. Stoyanov, M. Kollosche, S. Risse, H. Ragusch, Dmitry Rychkov, M. Dansachmüller, R. Wache

    Materials science on the nano-scale for improvements in actuation properties of dielectric elastomer actuators

    Proceedings of SPIE 7642

    2010

    DOI: 10.1117/12.847281

    Abstract anzeigen

    We discuss various approaches to increasing the dielectric constant of elastomer materials, for use in dielectric elastomer actuators. High permittivity metal-oxide nano-particles can show elevated impact compared to larger size particles, but suffer from water uptake. Composites with conducting particles lead to extremely high permittivity caused by percolation, but they often suffer early breakdown. We present experiments on approaches combining metal-oxides and metal particles, which compensate for the drawbacks, and may lead to useful DEA materials in which all relevant properties are technologically useful. The key seems to be to avoid percolation and achieve a constant nearest-neighbor separation.