Matthew White, Heather Braund, D. Howes, R. Egan, Andreas Gegenfurtner, J.J.G. van Merriënboer, A. Szulewski
Getting Inside the Expert's Head: An Analysis of Physician Cognitive Processes During Trauma Resuscitations
Annals of emergency medicine, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 289-298
Crisis resource management skills are integral to leading the resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Despite their importance, crisis resource management skills (and their associated cognitive processes) have traditionally been difficult to study in the real world. The objective of this study was to derive key cognitive processes underpinning expert performance in resuscitation medicine, using a new eye-tracking-based video capture method during clinical cases.
During an 18-month period, a sample of 10 trauma resuscitations led by 4 expert trauma team leaders was analyzed. The physician team leaders were outfitted with mobile eye-tracking glasses for each case. After each resuscitation, participants were debriefed with a modified cognitive task analysis, based on a cued-recall protocol, augmented by viewing their own first-person perspective eye-tracking video from the clinical encounter.
Eye-tracking technology was successfully applied as a tool to aid in the qualitative analysis of expert performance in a clinical setting. All participants stated that using these methods helped uncover previously unconscious aspects of their cognition. Overall, 5 major themes were derived from the interviews: logistic awareness, managing uncertainty, visual fixation behaviors, selective attendance to information, and anticipatory behaviors.
The novel approach of cognitive task analysis augmented by eye tracking allowed the derivation of 5 unique cognitive processes underpinning expert performance in leading a resuscitation. An understanding of these cognitive processes has the potential to enhance educational methods and to create new assessment modalities of these previously tacit aspects of expertise in this field.
NachhaltigEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
P. Coman, Stefan Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Veje, R. White
Modeling Vaporization, Gas Generation and Venting in Li-Ion Battery Cells with a Dimethyl Carbonate Electrolyte
Electrochemical Society Journal, vol. 164, no. 9
This paper presents a mathematical model developed for predicting the temperature-pressure behavior and gas generation inside 18650 LCO/Graphite cells with a DMC (Dimethyl Carbonate) electrolyte. The cell was modeled using oven heating conditions, and the analysis was done at time intervals around the venting event. The paper also presents the thermodynamic property table for DMC, as extracted from different resources and calculated using various assumptions. The model was developed by deriving the energy balance for an unsteady-flow control volume and applying the isentropic flow equations corresponding to the venting of gas. The results show that the model fails to predict the pressure measured experimentally when no gas is generated inside. When adding the gas generation due to pre-venting reactions occurring, the model can predict the pressure profile measured experimentally.
A. Al Lily, J. Foland, D. Stoloff, A. Gogus, I. Erguvan, M. Awshar, J. Tondeur, M. Hammond, I. Venter, P. Jerry, A. Oni, Y. Liu, R. Badosek, López de la Madrid, M.C., E. Mazzoni, D. Vlachopoulos, H. Lee, K. Kinley, M. Kalz, U. Sambuu, T. Bushnaq, N. Pinkwart, N. Adedokun-Shittu, P.-O. Zander, K. Oliver, L. Teixeira Pombo, J. Balaban Sali, S. Gregory, S. Tobgay, M. Joy, J. Elen, Odeh Helal Jwaifell, M., M.N.H.M. Said, Y. Al-Saggaf, A. Naaji, J. White, K. Jordan, J. Gerstein, İ. Umit Yapici, C. Sanga, P. Nleya, B. Sbihi, M. Rocha Lucas, V. Mbarika, S. Schön, L. Sujo-Montes, M. Santally, P. Häkkinen, A. Al Saif, Andreas Gegenfurtner, S. Schatz, V. Padilla Vigil, C. Tannahill, S. Padilla Partida, Z. Zhang, K. Charalambous, A. Moreira, M. Coto, et al.
Academic domains as political battlegrounds
A global enquiry by 99 academics in the fields of education and technology
Information Development, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 270-288
This article theorizes the functional relationship between the human components (i.e., scholars) and non-human components (i.e., structural configurations) of academic domains. It is organized around the following question: in what ways have scholars formed and been formed by the structural configurations of their academic domain? The article uses as a case study the academic domain of education and technology to examine this question. Its authorship approach is innovative, with a worldwide collection of academics (99 authors) collaborating to address the proposed question based on their reflections on daily social and academic practices. This collaboration followed a three-round process of contributions via email. Analysis of these scholars’ reflective accounts was carried out, and a theoretical proposition was established from this analysis. The proposition is of a mutual (yet not necessarily balanced) power (and therefore political) relationship between the human and non-human constituents of an academic realm, with the two shaping one another. One implication of this proposition is that these non-human elements exist as political ‘actors’, just like their human counterparts, having ‘agency’ – which they exercise over humans. This turns academic domains into political (functional or dysfunctional) ‘battlefields’ wherein both humans and non-humans engage in political activities and actions that form the identity of the academic domain.