GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn
Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, N. Petrovsky, P.-M. Schmidt, P. Trautner, B. Weber, B. Sträter, U. Ettinger
Effects of Nicotine and Atomoxetine on Brain Function During Response Inhibition
European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 2 (February), pp. 235-246
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine and the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor atomoxetine are widely studied substances due to their propensity to alleviate cognitive deficits in psychiatric and neurological patients and their beneficial effects on some aspects of cognitive functions in healthy individuals. However, despite growing evidence of acetylcholine-noradrenaline interactions, there are only very few direct comparisons of the two substances. Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine and atomoxetine on response inhibition in the stop-signal task and we characterised the neural correlates of these effects using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T. Nicotine (7 mg dermal patch) and atomoxetine (60 mg per os) were applied to N = 26 young, healthy adults in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, within-subjects design. BOLD images were collected during a stop-signal task that controlled for infrequency of stop trials. There were no drug effects on behavioural performance or subjective state measures. However, there was a pronounced upregulation of activation in bilateral prefrontal and left parietal cortex following nicotine during successful compared to unsuccessful stop trials. The effect of nicotine on BOLD during failed stop trials was correlated across individuals with a measure of trait impulsivity. Atomoxetine, however, had no discernible effects on BOLD. We conclude that nicotine effects on brain function during inhibitory control are most pronounced in individuals with higher levels of impulsivity. This finding is compatible with previous evidence of nicotine effects on stop-signal task performance in highly impulsive individuals and implicates the nAChR in the neural basis of impulsivity.
NachhaltigAngewandte InformatikTC Freyung
J. Schmidt, K. Gruber, M. Klingler, C. Klöckl, Luis Ramirez Camargo, P. Regner, O. Turkovska, S. Wehrle, E. Wetterlund
A new perspective on global renewable energy systems: why trade in energy carriers matters
Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 2022-2029
Recent global modelling studies suggest a decline of long-distance trade in energy carriers in future global renewable energy systems, compared to today's fossil fuel based system. In contrast, we identify four drivers that facilitate trade of renewable energy carriers. These drivers may lead to trade volumes remaining at current levels or even to an increase during the transition to an energy system with very high shares of renewables. First, new land-efficient technologies for renewable fuel production become increasingly available and technically allow for long-distance trade in renewables. Second, regional differences in social acceptance and land availability for energy infrastructure support the development of renewable fuel import and export streams. Third, the economics of renewable energy systems, i.e. the different production conditions globally and the high costs of fully renewable regional electricity systems, will create opportunities for spatial arbitrage. Fourth, a reduction of stranded investments in the fossil fuel sector is possible by switching from fossil fuels to renewable fuel trade. The impact of these drivers on trade in renewable energy carriers is currently under-investigated by the global energy systems research community. The importance of the topic, in particular as trade can redistribute profits and losses of decarbonization and may hence support finding new partners in climate change mitigation negotiations, warrants further research efforts in this area therefore.
MobilNachhaltigTC Plattling MoMo
W. Schmidt, P. Bottke, Michael Sternad, P. Gollob, V. Hennige, M. Wilkening
Small Change—Great Effect: Steep Increase of Li Ion Dynamics in Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 at the Early Stages of Chemical Li Insertion
Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1740-1750
Lithium titanate (LTO) is one of the most promising anode materials for large-scale stationary electrochemical storage of energy produced from renewable sources. Besides many other aspects, such as negligible formation of passivation layers and no volume expansion during lithiation, the success of LTO is mainly based on its ability to easily accommodate and release Li ions in a fully reversible way. This feature is tightly connected with Li self-diffusion. As yet, little information is available about microscopic Li diffusion properties and elementary steps of Li hopping at low intercalation levels, i.e., at values of x being significantly smaller than 1. Here, we used 7Li spin-locking NMR relaxometry to probe absolute hopping rates of LTO (homogeneous) solid solutions in quasi-thermodynamic equilibrium. As a result, the largest increase of Li diffusivity is observed when small amounts of Li are inserted. Strong Coulomb repulsions caused by the simultaneous occupation of neighboring 8a and 16c sites serve as an explanation for the enhanced Li diffusivity found. At even larger values of x, Li mobility slows down but is still much faster than in the host material with x = 0. Our results experimentally corroborate the outcome of recently published calculations on the DFT level focusing on both dynamic and structural aspects. The findings favor the formation of LTO solid solutions upon chemical lithiation; the steep increase in Li diffusivity found might also help with understanding the flat insertion potential observed.
Elektrotechnik und Medientechnik
C. Bornkessel, M. Schubert, Matthias Wuschek, P. Schmidt
Determination of the General Public Exposure Around GSM and UMTS Base Stations
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 40-47
This paper summarises two studies, in which measurement and calculation methods to determine the exposure of the general public around GSM and UMTS base stations have been developed and applied to different scenarios. The electromagnetic field variations around the stations in space and time are accounted for by appropriate maximisation techniques. Measurements show a bandwidth of exposures from 0.01% to more than 10% of field strength exposure limits. The distance to the station is not a main influencing factor, whereas the orientation to the main lobe and the sight conditions greatly influence exposure. Several commercially available numerical simulation tools were tested for their applicability on exposure forecast. In line-of-sight scenarios, all programs are able to predict the exposure accurately, whereas in non-line-of-sight situations, free space models overestimate the real exposure by some orders of magnitude.
Elektrotechnik und Medientechnik
P. Kummeth, Reinhard Schlosser, P. Massek, H. Schmidt, C. Albrecht, D. Breitfelder, H.-W. Neumüller
Development and test of a 100 kVA superconducting transformer operated at 77 K
Superconductor Science and Technology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 503-505
High-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformers are very promising candidates for application in electrical power engineering. Their main advantages are reduced size, weight, better efficiency and reduced potential fire and environmental hazards. We have designed, constructed and tested a 100 kVA HTS power transformer operated at 77 K. The nominal primary and secondary currents (voltages) are 18 A (5.6 kV) and 92 A (1.1 kV), respectively. No-load tests, short-circuit tests and load tests proved repeatedly that the transformer has the rated capacity. HTS winding losses of 20.6 W and iron losses of 403 W were measured.