Wolfgang Nagl, R. Lehmann
Explaining spatial patterns of foreign employment in Germany
Regional Studies, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 991-1003
This paper investigates the main determinants of the representation of foreign employees across German regions. Since migration determinants are not necessarily the same for workers of different nationalities, spatial patterns are explained not only for total foreign employment but also for the 35 most important migration countries to Germany. Based on a total census for all 402 German districts, the paper starts by showing the spatial distributions of workers with different nationalities and explains the emerging patterns by spatial error models. Although large heterogeneity in determinants across nationalities are found, similarities between country groups prevail. Economic conditions matter for most nationalities, whereas the importance of amenities and openness differ.
Wolfgang Nagl, T. Hanappi
Retirement Behaviour in Austria: Effects of Incentives on Old‐Age Labour Supply
Fiscal Studies - The Journal of Applied Public Economics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 301-328
We provide an extensive analysis of retirement behaviour in Austria with a special focus on the role of incentives delivered by the tax and benefit system in determining individual retirement decisions. A comprehensive microsimulation model of the Austrian pension system is applied to calculate retirement benefit entitlements and forward‐looking incentive measures (social security wealth, accrual rate, peak and option values) on an individual basis. We use the calculated incentive measures as the main explanatory variables in probit models to explain retirement decisions. We base our microsimulation and estimations on an extensive administrative Austrian data set. These data contain information on more than 300,000 new retirees from the period 2001–11. We provide robust evidence that incentive measures are well suited to explaining individual retirement decisions.
M. Tir, A. Simonovits, Wolfgang Nagl, W. Keck, E. Granseth
Negative Correlation between Retirement Age and Contribution Length?
Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1050-1070
Though never stated explicitly, there is a hidden hypothesis that in a normal pension
system, the retirement age and the length of contribution are strongly and positively
correlated. We compare the time paths of male and female correlation coefficients
in Austria, Germany, Hungary and Sweden for several years and categories; and
obtain a mixed picture. Hungary and Austria stand out with their strong negative
correlation but the remaining two countries cannot boast with strongly positive
correlation, either. Further work is needed to understand the significance of our findings
but they signal some problems with these systems: heterogeneously fragmented
careers and unfair benefit rules.