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    DigitalNachhaltigEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    M. Metzger, M. Duckheim, M. Franken, H. Heger, Matthias Huber, M. Knittel, T. Kolster, M. Kueppers, C. Meier, D. Most, S. Paulus, L. Wyrwoll, A. Moser, S. Niessen

    Pathways toward a Decarbonized Future—Impact on Security of Supply and System Stability in a Sustainable German Energy System

    Energies, vol. 14, no. 3

    2021

    DOI: 10.3390/en14030560

    Abstract anzeigen

    Pathways leading to a carbon neutral future for the German energy system have to deal with the expected phase-out of coal-fired power generation, in addition to the shutdown of nuclear power plants and the rapid ramp-up of photovoltaics and wind power generation. An analysis of the expected impact on electricity market, security of supply, and system stability must consider the European context because of the strong coupling—both from an economic and a system operation point of view—through the cross-border power exchange of Germany with its neighbors. This analysis, complemented by options to improve the existing development plans, is the purpose of this paper. We propose a multilevel energy system modeling, including electricity market, network congestion management, and system stability, to identify challenges for the years 2023 and 2035. Out of the results, we would like to highlight the positive role of innovative combined heat and power (CHP) solutions securing power and heat supply, the importance of a network congestion management utilizing flexibility from sector coupling, and the essential network extension plans. Network congestion and reduced security margins will become the new normal. We conclude that future energy systems require expanded flexibilities in combination with forward planning of operation.

    NachhaltigMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Giuseppe Bonfigli, S. Buchholz, F. Schäfer, Nadine Kaczmarkiewicz, C. Schuster, M. Sporn

    Safety cases for design-basis accidents in LWRs featuring passive systems Part 2 – Numerical investigations

    Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 372, no. February

    2021

    DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2020.110996

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper deals with the improvement and validation of numerical tools for the simulation of design basis accidents in nuclear power plants equipped with passive safety systems. Numerical models are implemented in the framework of the 1-D thermal–hydraulic system code ATHLET developed by GRS. Experimental reference data for the validation were obtained at the INKA test facility, a model of the KERENA reactor, reproducing the passive safety systems nearly at full scale. The validation effort focuses firstly on the accuracy of the models for the single passive components, and secondly on the ability of the numerical simulation to reproduce the interaction of all components of the KERENA design under realistic conditions as reproduced in the INKA test facility. Thermal-hydraulic models are presented and validated for two passive components of the KERENA reactor: the passive pressure pulse transmitter and the pressure-controlled flooding valve. Finally, the full model of the INKA facility, including these and other passive components, is discussed and numerical results for simulations reproducing three different design basis accidents are validated by comparison with the corresponding experimental data.

    DigitalNachhaltigEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Kueppers. M., S. Paredes Pineda, M. Metzger, Matthias Huber, S. Paulus, H. Heger, S. Niessen

    Decarbonization pathways of worldwide energy systems – Definition and modeling of archetypes

    Applied Energy, vol. 285, no. 01 March 2021

    2021

    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116438

    Abstract anzeigen

    Energy system models help to find the optimal technology mixes for decarbonization strategies in countries worldwide. To reduce the modeling effort and analyze as many countries as possible, this paper proposes a novel approach of energy system archetypes which can be directly evaluated. These archetypes classify similar countries worldwide independently from their geographic location. Advantages of this idea are the setup of a transferable global database allowing for data reconstruction between countries, market size estimations, and the ability to compare peer countries facing similar challenges. To enable such modeling, a framework is developed in which the archetypes are defined, standardized modeling rules are developed, and the results are evaluated for validation. In a benchmark against simple geographic classifications, the presented clustering approach, which results in 15 archetypes, improves the variance between all countries and their corresponding archetypes by 44% compared to the variance between the countries and their geographic sub-regions. The model results of these archetypes state the need of balancing technologies for the daily cycle of photovoltaic generation and the general importance of flexibility in future decarbonized energy systems. Overall, the results confirm that archetypes are an adequate approach to derive the set of solutions for the decarbonization of worldwide countries.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Hamid, J. Sun, H. Zhang, Thomas Stirner

    Molecular dynamics simulation analysis of helium cluster growth conditions under tungsten surfaces

    Computational Materials Science, vol. 186, no. January

    2021

    DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109994

    Abstract anzeigen

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the effects of helium fluxes on helium cluster size underneath tungsten surfaces under bombardment of helium atoms with incident energy 30 100 eV at temperature 300 2100 K. The simulation results show that the helium cluster size depends on the magnitude of the helium flux: at a higher flux, the helium clusters on average form in smaller size in tungsten but with larger number; while the clusters form further away from the surface at a lower flux. The coalescence of He atoms and helium bubbles depends on the tungsten temperature: at elevated temperatures around 2000 K, the incident He atoms in tungsten slow down more rapidly than at 1000 K but the number of vacancies per He cluster is smaller. The incident energy has a strong effect on the retention of helium atoms: The helium retention rate increases with the incident energy, and the helium retention depends weakly on temperature in the low energy range of interest. It is also found that the surface orientation plays an important role not only in determining the depth distribution but also in determining the helium retention and cluster size: at the surface {1 1 0}, the retention rate of helium atoms is the lowest, and at the surface {1 1 1}, the clusters grow easily in the lateral direction. The present simulation results suggest that the {0 0 1} surface is favorable for fuzz growth. The results obtained in the present work provide insight to the reasons why the fuzz only grows within a certain parameter range at the atomic level.

    NachhaltigAngewandte WirtschaftswissenschaftenInst. GMRC

    Internetdokument

    Josef Scherer

    GRC in der Praxis – von der Resilienz und dem Nachhaltigen Handeln

    Ein Interview mit Prof. Dr. Josef Scherer

    2020

    DigitalNachhaltigAngewandte WirtschaftswissenschaftenInst. GMRC

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Josef Scherer

    Resilienz & Zukunftsfähigkeit: Aktuelle Anforderungen an Unternehmensführung (GRC), Digitalisierung und Nachhaltigkeit

    JMG Journal für Medizin- und Gesundheitsrecht, no. 3, pp. 165-172

    2020

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und Medientechnik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    C. Niu, Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, X. Li, W. Liu, W. Ni, H. Fan, N. Lu, Günther Benstetter, G. Lei, D. Liu

    Effect of temperature on the growth and surface bursting of He nano-bubbles in W under fusion-relevant He ion irradiations

    Fusion Engineering and Design, vol. 163, no. Available online 26 December 2020

    2020

    DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2020.112159

    Abstract anzeigen

    Under fusion-relevant He+ irradiations, the W surface temperature is one of the most important parameters for controlling the fuzz growth over the W divertor targets, which is associated with the surface bursting of He nano-bubbles. Using He reaction rate model in W, we investigate the effect of temperature on the growth and surface bursting of He nano-bubbles under low-energy (100 eV) and large-flux (∼1022/m2⋅s) He+ irradiations. Increasing the irradiation temperature from 750 to 2500 K leads to a significant change in both the radius of He nano-bubbles and He retention. At an elevated temperature, He solute atoms prefer to rapidly diffuse into He nano-bubbles, thus affecting their concentration, growth and surface bursting. The decrease in He retention is attributed to an increase in the hop rate of solute He atoms in the W top layer, resulting in the significant He release from the W surface. The radius and density of He nano-bubbles calculated by our model are consistent with our experimental observation.

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und Medientechnik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    W. Ni, Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, C. Niu, L. Liu, H. Fan, Günther Benstetter, G. Lei, D. Liu

    The effect of fusion-relevant He ion flux on the evolution of He nano-bubbles in W

    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, vol. 62, no. 6

    2020

    DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/ab8242

    Abstract anzeigen

    Based on a He reaction rate model in W, we have analyzed the effect of fusion-relevant He+ flux on the evolution and surface bursting of He nano-bubbles in W. The concentrations of solute He atoms, trapped He atoms, and He nano-bubbles, and the radius of He nano-bubbles have been obtained as a function of depth, He+ dose, and He+ flux. He retentions in W are also calculated as the function of He+ dose and flux. Our modeling shows that the He+ flux varying from 5.0 × 1018 to 5.0 × 1024 m−2centerdots−1 significantly affects the concentration of solute He atoms diffusing in W and trapped He atoms, the evolution of He nano-bubbles, and He retention in W. Both the concentration and radius of He nano-bubbles in W show the dependence on He+ flux, and their surface bursting leads to an increase ($\Delta {A_{b - Burst}}$) in the W surface area, thus the growth of W nano-fuzz. When He+ flux increases 5.0 × 1018 to 5.0 × 1024m−2centerdots−1, the bursting rate of He nano-bubbles is greatly reduced, accompanied by an increase in $\Delta {A_{b - Burst}}$. However, $\Delta {A_{b - Burst}}$ is less dependent on the fusion-relevant He+ flux varying from 9.0 × 1020 to 1.6 × 1022m−2centerdots−1, which is consistent with the measured W nano-fuzz growth by He/D2 plasmas.

    NachhaltigTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Kristina Wanieck, D. Ritzinger, C. Zollfrank, S. Jacobs

    Biomimetics: teaching the tools of the trade

    FEBS Open Bio, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 2250-2267

    2020

    DOI: 10.1002/2211-5463.12963

    Abstract anzeigen

    Biomimetics is a known innovation paradigm of the twenty‐first century with significant impact on science, society, economy, and challenges of sustainability. As such, it can be understood as a mindset for creative thinking and as a methodology or technique for effective knowledge transfer between disciplines, mainly biology and technology. As biomimetics is relevant to practitioners in various fields of application, understanding the teaching and training of biomimetics for different audiences is important. With this article, we aim to give a holistic view of teaching and training practices and opportunities. First, we offer a set of learning objectives based on an analysis of various courses worldwide and we give recommendations for the design of future curricula. Second, based on an audience analysis and interviews, we developed a set of personas of the users of biomimetics, and as such, we offer a deeper understanding of their needs for the design of the process, including tools and methods.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Michael Benisch, O. Fähnle, Rolf Rascher

    Observation of pressure distribution between tool and surface in different polishing situations

    Proceedings of SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications (24 August - 04 September, 20208; Optical Manufacturing and Testing XIII; online conference), San Diego, United States, vol. 11487

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2567885

    Abstract anzeigen

    Pressure is a relevant parameter in the polishing of components according to the Preston equation.1, 2 Preliminary investigations have shown that the pressure can vary with inclined position and different polishing pads. It is not constant with regard to its distribution in the contact area between polishing pad and glass surface. In this publication, the pressure distribution during the polishing of glass components is analyzed. For the measurement of the pressure distribution a pressure sensitive foil is used.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Michael Benisch, Christian Vogt, Rolf Rascher, O. Fähnle

    Octopus: A simple and effective tool for polishing slurry monitoring

    Proceedings of SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications (24 August - 04 September, 20208; Optical Manufacturing and Testing XIII; online conference), San Diego, United States, vol. 11487

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2567952

    Abstract anzeigen

    The present paper shows a way for a cost-effective, integrated measurement of the density p of polishing suspensions. It is based on the principle of measuring the turbidity of a solution on the basis of the light transmitted through it, and of calculating back to the density on the basis of the turbidity. The tool is suitable for monitoring polishing agents and for detecting when the density of the polishing slurry leaves the permissible parameter space and can perspectively enable the automated monitoring and adjustment of polishing suspensions. The tool is named after an Octopus. These animals have amazing abilities, for example they can copy the behaviour of other sea animals or act with a plan. Their tentacles each have their own brain and can perform biochemical analyses.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Michael Benisch, O. Fähnle, Rolf Rascher

    Application of a pressure measuring film for pressure observation in overarm polishing

    Proceedings of EOSAM 2020 (European Optical Society Biennial Meeting; 7-11 September 2020; online), vol. 238

    2020

    DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/202023803003

    Abstract anzeigen

    In previous publications the inhomogeneous pressure transfer through the polishing tool onto a glass surface could be shown. This experiment shows polishing trials with different polishing materials and the differences in the homogeneity of the pressure transfer through them. Only the properties of the material will be discussed explicitly, the change of the tool constitution through the process will be part of further publications.

    DigitalNachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Simon Killinger, Johannes Liebl, Rolf Rascher

    Interferometric measurement with robot kinematics

    Proceedings of SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications (24 August - 04 September, 20208; Optical Manufacturing and Testing XIII; online conference), San Diego, United States, vol. 11487

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2568348

    Abstract anzeigen

    Polishing precision optics is highly depending on the operator. Hence, a good result relies on a skilled optician who controls the process chain. This process chain consists of different manual steps such as loading, cleaning and calibrating different machines. To get more control over the process and to speed up the production we currently build an operator independent polishing cell using a single robot. Therefore, we positioned the robot in the middle of the production cell, which enables the robot to reach and manipulate different tools located around the kinematic. One major issues is the lower positioning accuracy and stiffness of an industrial robot in comparison to standard optic machines. Probably the most challenging step concerning accuracy in precision optics manufacturing is the interferometric measurement. In this paper, we present a method using an ESDI Intellium H2000 interferometer, designed for use in unsteady conditions. The robot positions the surface under test without the use of any additional mechanics to enhance the accuracy. The measurement position was manually teached in and approached several times for a statistically significant evaluation. The results show that the robot is sufficiently accurate and stable to perform interferometric measurements. This is a key element towards a completely operator-independent manufacturing cell for precision optics.

    NachhaltigEuropan Campus Rottal-InnTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Javier Valdés, Sebastian Wöllmann, Andreas Weber, G. Klaus, Christina Sigl, M. Prem, Robert Bauer, Roland Zink

    A framework for regional smart energy planning using volunteered geographic information

    Advances in Geosciences, vol. 54, no. 10 December 2020, pp. 179-193

    2020

    DOI: 10.5194/adgeo-54-179-2020

    Abstract anzeigen

    This study presents a framework for regional smart energy planning for the optimal location and sizing of small hybrid systems. By using an optimization model – in combination with weather data – various local energy systems are simulated using the Calliope and PyPSA energy system simulation tools. The optimization and simulation models are fed with GIS data from different volunteered geographic information projects, including OpenStreetMap. These allow automatic allocation of specific demand profiles to diverse OpenStreetMap building categories. Moreover, based on the characteristics of the OpenStreetMap data, a set of possible distributed energy resources, including renewables and fossil-fueled generators, is defined for each building category. The optimization model can be applied for a set of scenarios based on different assumptions on electricity prices and technologies. Moreover, to assess the impact of the scenarios on the current distribution infrastructure, a simulation model of the low- and medium-voltage network is conducted. Finally, to facilitate their dissemination, the results of the simulation are stored in a PostgreSQL database, before they are delivered by a RESTful Laravel Server and displayed in an angular web application.

    DigitalNachhaltigEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Kueppers. M., C. Perau, M. Franken, H. Heger, Matthias Huber, M. Metzger, S. Niessen

    Data-Driven Regionalization of Decarbonized Energy Systems for Reflecting Their Changing Topologies in Planning and Optimization

    Energies, vol. 13, no. 16

    2020

    DOI: 10.3390/en13164076

    Abstract anzeigen

    The decarbonization of energy systems has led to a fundamental change in their topology since generation is shifted to locations with favorable renewable conditions. In planning, this change is reflected by applying optimization models to regions within a country to optimize the distribution of generation units and to evaluate the resulting impact on the grid topology. This paper proposes a globally applicable framework to find a suitable regionalization for energy system models with a data-driven approach. Based on a global, spatially resolved database of demand, generation, and renewable profiles, hierarchical clustering with fine-tuning is performed. This regionalization approach is applied by modeling the resulting regions in an optimization model including a synthesized grid. In an exemplary case study, South Africa’s energy system is examined. The results show that the data-driven regionalization is beneficial compared to the common approach of using political regions. Furthermore, the results of a modeled 80% decarbonization until 2045 demonstrate that the integration of renewable energy sources fundamentally changes the role of regions within South Africa’s energy system. Thereby, the electricity exchange between regions is also impacted, leading to a different grid topology. Using clustered regions improves the understanding and analysis of regional transformations in the decarbonization process.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Christian J. Trum, M. Jung, Beate Schmidbauer, Sebastian Sitzberger, E. Willenborg, Rolf Rascher

    Hybrid-process-chain for polishing optical glass lenses – HyoptO

    Proceedings of SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications (24 August - 04 September, 20208; Optical Manufacturing and Testing XIII; online conference), San Diego, United States, vol. 11487

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2568400

    Abstract anzeigen

    A number of process steps that build on one another are required to manufacture optical components from glass. The polishing steps are the most time-consuming and therefore cost-intensive parts of the process chain. Low removal rates and the depth of the Sub Surface Damage (SSD) to be removed contribute to this. An alternative for the complete removal of the SSD-penetrated material using contactless polishing methods such as Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) is the healing of the SSD. Due to the induced energy during laser-polishing, the material is remelted at the defects and the SSD are closed. However, laser-polishing is also associated with disadvantages in terms of shape accuracy and surface quality. The project HyoptO is therefore devoted to the development of a hybrid-process-chain consisting of laser processing and conventional polishing. It is expected that the healing times of the SSD can significantly reduce the process times in the subsequent polishing steps. However, there are a few questions to be answered regarding the economic use of the hybrid-process-chain. These include:

    NachhaltigEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    A. Schmeisky, Janina Beduhn

    The K+S brine challenge: Approach to create sustainable solutions

    Global Goals Yearbook 2020, vol. 2020

    2020

    ISBN: 9783946284093

    NachhaltigTSZ Weißenburg

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Y.A.O. Assagra, Altafim, R.A.P., J. do Carmo, R.A.C. Altafim, Dmitry Rychkov, Wirges, W., Gerhard, R.

    A new route to piezo-polymer transducers: 3D printing of polypropylene ferroelectrets

    IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1668-1674

    2020

    DOI: 10.1109/TDEI.2020.008461

    Abstract anzeigen

    Here, a promising approach for producing piezo-polymer transducers in a one-step process is presented. Using 3D-printing technology and polypropylene (PP) filaments, we are able to print a two-layered film structure with regular cavities of precisely controlled size and shape. It is found that the 3D-printed samples exhibit piezoelectric coefficients up to 200 pC/N, similar to those of other PP ferroelectrets, and their temporal and thermal behavior is in good agreement with those known of PP ferroelectrets. The piezoelectric response strongly decreases for applied pressures above 20 kPa, as the pressure in the air-filled cavities strongly influences the overall elastic modulus of ferroelectrets.

    DigitalNachhaltigAngewandte InformatikTC Plattling MoMo

    Vortrag

    Markus Eider, Andreas Berl

    Requirements for prescriptive recommender systems extending the lifetime of EV batteries

    2020 10th International Conference on Advanced Computer Information Technologies (ACIT), Deggendorf

    2020

    DigitalNachhaltigAngewandte InformatikTC Plattling MoMo

    Vortrag

    Nicki Bodenschatz, Markus Eider, Andreas Berl

    Mixed-Integer-Linear-Programming model for the charging scheduling of electric vehicle fleets

    2020 10th International Conference on Advanced Computer Information Technologies (ACIT), Deggendorf

    2020