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Suche nach „[M.] [Lukosius]“ hat 15 Publikationen gefunden
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    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    J. Kitzmann, O. Luxenhofer, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, G. Zoth, Günther Ruhl, W. Mehr, I. Costina, S. Vaziri, M. Lukosius, I. Pasternak, M. Lemme, C. Wenger, M. Östling, A. Wolff, S. Kataria, G. Lupina, A. Gahoi

    Residual Metallic Contamination of Transferred Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene

    ACS Nano, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4776-4785

    2015

    DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b01261

    Abstract anzeigen

    Integration of graphene with Si microelectronics is very appealing by offering a potentially broad range of new functionalities. New materials to be integrated with the Si platform must conform to stringent purity standards. Here, we investigate graphene layers grown on copper foils by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to silicon wafers by wet etching and electrochemical delamination methods with respect to residual submonolayer metallic contaminations. Regardless of the transfer method and associated cleaning scheme, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements indicate that the graphene sheets are contaminated with residual metals (copper, iron) with a concentration exceeding 1013 atoms/cm2. These metal impurities appear to be partially mobile upon thermal treatment, as shown by depth profiling and reduction of the minority charge carrier diffusion length in the silicon substrate. As residual metallic impurities can significantly alter electronic and electrochemical properties of graphene and can severely impede the process of integration with silicon microelectronics, these results reveal that further progress in synthesis, handling, and cleaning of graphene is required to advance electronic and optoelectronic applications.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    S. Rushworth, S. Haukkac, W. Besling, T. Blomberg, B. Riou, Günther Ruhl, A. Roeste, A. Zauner, M. Lukosius, W. Lehnert, E. Langereis, P. Baumann, C. Wenger, F. Roozeboom, S. Lhostif, A. Halimaou, C. Baristiran Kaynak, W.M.M. Kessels

    Dielectric Material Options for Integrated Capacitors

    ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 8

    2014

    DOI: 10.1149/2.0101408jss

    Abstract anzeigen

    Future MIM capacitor generations will require significantly increased specific capacitances by utilization of high-k dielectric materials. In order to achieve high capacitance per chip area, these dielectrics have to be deposited in three-dimensional capacitor structures by ALD or AVD (atomic vapor deposition) process techniques. In this study eight dielectric materials, which can be deposited by these techniques and exhibit the potential to reach k-values of over 50 were identified, prepared and characterized as single films and stacked film systems. To primarily focus on a material comparison, preliminary processes were used for film deposition on planar test devices. Measuring leakage current density versus the dielectric constant k shows that at low voltages (≤1 V) dielectrics with k-values up to 100 satisfy the typical leakage current density specification of <10−7 A/cm2 for MIM capacitors. At higher voltages (3 V) this specification is only fulfilled for dielectrics with k-values below 45. As a consequence, the maximum achievable capacitance gain by introducing high-k dielectrics depends on the operating voltage of the application, such as DRAM capacitors or RF and blocking capacitors. To meet the reliability requirements for RF and blocking capacitors, high-k dielectric film thicknesses of up to 50 nm are necessary.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    T. Blomberg, Günther Ruhl, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger

    Properties of stacked SrTiO3/Al2O3 metal–insulator–metal capacitors

    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, vol. 31, no. 1

    2013

    DOI: 10.1116/1.4766183

    Abstract anzeigen

    The possibilities to grow thin films of SrTiO3 and Al2O3 by atomic layer deposition for stacked metal–insulator–metal capacitors have been investigated in this work. In order to tune the functional properties of the capacitors, different processing steps have been employed to realize different combinations of the dielectric stacks. Electrical properties, extracted after the postdeposition annealing and sputter deposition of the Au top electrodes, indicated that the metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures with additional Al2O3 layer provided better leakage currents densities, compared to the ones with single SrTiO3 based MIM capacitors, but the dielectric constant values have also decreased if additional Al2O3 film was inserted. Attempts to optimize the properties of the MIM stacks have been done by manufacturing heterostructures of Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 as well as SrTiO3/Al2O3/SrTiO3. In the first case, Al2O3 prevented the crystallization of SrTiO3 in the multilayer dielectric structure and therefore reduced the total capacitance density of the particular MIM stack, whereas the SrTiO3/Al2O3/SrTiO3 stack was found to possess superior electrical properties. Leakage current density as low as ∼10−8 A/cm2 at 2 V and the dielectric constant value of 40 have been extracted.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    D. Walcyk, T. Blomberg, Günther Ruhl, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger

    Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors with ALD grown SrTiO3: Influence of Pt electrodes

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 41

    2012

    Abstract anzeigen

    Metal-Insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) single SrTiO3 dielectric have been investigated in this work. Structural and electrical properties were studied after the formation of the MIM stack consisting of the platinum (Pt) bottom electrode, 50 nm SrTiO3 layer and the top Pt electrode. The as deposited films were amorphous and had a dielectric constant of ~ 10, whereas the annealing of the samples in the nitrogen (N2) or oxygen (O2) atmosphere at 550-600 °C led to the crystallization of the SrTiO3 and therefore to the increased dielectric constant of ~ 85. In addition, the electrical results revealed that the combination of SrTiO3 with the high work function electrode like Pt, provided better leakage current performance in comparison with TiN/ SrTiO3 stacks. The values as low as ~ 10−7 A/cm2 at 2 V were observed for both in N2 or O2 annealed SrTiO3 layers. On the other hand, the samples annealed in O2 atmosphere at 600 °C possessed lower capacitance-voltage nonlinearity coefficients (−645 ppm/V2) than the ones for N2 annealed samples (-2700 ppm/V2).

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Abrutis, T. Blomberg, Günther Ruhl, P. Baumann, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger, G. Lupina

    Electrical and Morphological Properties of ALD and AVD Grown Perovskite-Type Dielectrics and Their Stacks for Metal-Insulator-Metal Applications

    ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, vol. 1, no. 1

    2012

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    T. Blomberg, Günther Ruhl, M. Lukosius, S. Kubotsch, C. Wenger, C. Baristiran Kaynak

    Properties of atomic-vapor and atomic-layer deposited Sr, Ti, and Nb doped Ta2O5 Metal–Insulator–Metal capacitors

    Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 14, pp. 4576-4579

    2012

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.199

    Abstract anzeigen

    Atomic Vapor Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition techniques were applied for the depositions of Ta2O5, Ti–Ta–O, Sr–Ta–O and Nb–Ta–O oxide films for Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors used in back-end of line for Radio Frequency applications. Structural and electrical properties were studied. Films, deposited on the TiN bottom electrodes, in the temperature range of 225–400 °C, were amorphous, whereas the post deposition annealing at 600 °C resulted in the crystallization of Nb–Ta–O films. Electrical properties of MIM structures, investigated after sputtering Au top electrodes, revealed that the main characteristics were different for each oxide. On one hand, Ti–Ta–O based MIM capacitors possessed the highest dielectric constant (50), but the leakages currents were also the highest (~ 10− 5 A/cm2 at − 2 V). On the other hand, Sr–Ta–O showed the lowest leakage current densities (~ 10− 9 A/cm2 at − 2 V) as well as the smallest capacitance–voltage nonlinearity coefficients (40 ppm/V2), but the dielectric constant was the smallest (20). The highest nonlinearity coefficients (290 ppm/V2) were observed for Nb–Ta–O based MIM capacitors, although relatively high dielectric constant (40) and low leakage currents (~ 10− 7 A/cm2 at − 2 V) were measured. Temperature dependent leakage-voltage measurements revealed that only Sr–Ta–O showed no dependence of leakage current as a function of the measurement temperature.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Abrutis, T. Blomberg, Günther Ruhl, M. Lukosius, P. Baumann, C. Wenger

    ALD and AVD Grown Perovskite-type Dielectrics for Metal-Insulator-Metal Application

    (Invited)

    ECS Transactions, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 53-61

    2011

    DOI: 10.1149/1.3633654

    Abstract anzeigen

    Atomic Vapor Deposition (AVD) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) techniques were successfully applied for the depositions of perovskite type dielectrics, namely, Sr-Ta-O, Ti-Ta-O, Sr-Ti-O, Ba-Hf-O, Nb-Ta-O and Ce-Al-O. Thin films were investigated as alternative dielectrics for Metal-Insulator-Insulator (MIM) capacitors. Structural and electrical properties are investigated after depositing the metal oxides on 200 mm TiN/Si (100) substrates within the temperature range of 225-400 ºC. Electrical properties, investigated after sputtering Au top electrodes, revealed that the main characteristics are different for each dielectric. The highest dielectric constants were achieved for crystalline SrTiO3 (k=95), crystalline CeAlO3 (k = 60) and amorphous Ti-Ta-O (k = 50) films. However, Sr-Ta-O based MIM capacitors showed the lowest leakage current densities as well as the smallest capacitancevoltage linearity coefficients.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Abrutis, Günther Ruhl, V. Kubilius, M. Skapas, A. Zauner, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger, C. Baristiran Kaynak

    Metal-insulator-metal capacitors with MOCVD grown Ce-Al-O as dielectric

    Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 1529-1532

    2011

    DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2011.03.044

    Abstract anzeigen

    Ce–Al–O thin films were prepared on 70 nm TiN/Si(1 0 0) substrates by pulsed injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PI-MOCVD) for metal–insulator–metal (MIM) applications. Depositions were carried out at 400 °C using two separate Ce and Al precursors. In order to get Ce–Al–O films with different stoichiometry, Al2O3 and CeO2 were mixed with different Ce:Al precursors’ ratios. According to the XRD analysis, the as deposited films were amorphous if more aluminum was injected than cerium, and crystalline – if they are cerium rich. Electrical properties have been investigated in MIM capacitors after e-beam evaporation of Au top electrodes. Oxides possess a dielectric constant of 10–20 in combination with leakage current densities as low as 10−5 A/cm2 at −2 V. The post deposition annealing (PDA) at 600 °C and 850 °C in N2 for 5 min lead to the diffusion of Ti from TiN bottom electrode and formation of the rutile TiO2 phase. Nevertheless, CeAlO3 films were obtained if the ratio of injected Ce:Al was 1:1. The k values increased to 60 in this case, but the leakage current density worsened to 10−3 A/cm2 at −2 V.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    T. Blomberg, Günther Ruhl, B. Tillack, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger, C. Baristiran Kaynak

    Single SrTiO3 and Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 based MIM capacitors: Impact of the bottom electrode material

    Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 1521-1524

    2011

    DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2011.03.022

    Abstract anzeigen

    Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) single SrTiO3 dielectric and Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 multilayer dielectric have been deposited on TaN and TiN bottom electrodes. The MIM stacks have been analyzed and compared in terms of electrical and structural properties. The results indicate that MIMs with multilayer dielectrics provide better leakage current performance than the ones with single dielectrics while capacitance density is decreased. Additional Al2O3 layers prevented the crystallization of SrTiO3 in the multilayer dielectric stack. The decreased capacitance density in MIMs with multilayer dielectric is attributed to the amorphous structure of SrTiO3 and the series capacitance of top and bottom Al2O3 layers. Furthermore, MIM capacitors with single SrTiO3 dielectric layer on TiN electrodes indicated better capacitance density compared to the one with TaN electrodes. The lower capacitance density of the single SrTiO3 dielectric on TaN electrodes is correlated to the interfacial layer formation between SrTiO3 and TaN electrodes.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    T. Blomberg, Günther Ruhl, B. Tillack, I. Costina, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger, C. Baristiran Kaynak

    Enhanced leakage current behavior of Sr2Ta2O7-x/SrTiO3 bilayer dielectrics for metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 17, pp. 5734-5739

    2011

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.001

    Abstract anzeigen

    Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors are one of the most essential components of radio frequency devices and analog/mixed-signal integrated circuits. In order to obtain high capacitance densities in MIM devices, high-k materials have been considered to be promising candidates to replace the traditional insulators. The challenging point is that the dielectric material must demonstrate high capacitance density values with low leakage current densities. In this work, SrTiO3 based MIM capacitors have been investigated and the electrical performance of the devices have been optimized by using bilayered systems of Sr2Ta2O7−x/SrTiO3 with different thicknesses of Sr2Ta2O7−x. Sputtering X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been applied to investigate the interfaces between the thin film constituents of the MIM stacks. The optimized bilayered system provides a leakage current density of 8∗10− 8 A/cm2 at 2 V (bottom electrode injection) and a high capacitance density of 13 fF/μm2.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    S. Rushworth, Günther Ruhl, M. Lukosius, P. Baumann, C. Wenger, C. Baristiran Kaynak

    Atomic Vapor Depositions of Ti–Ta–O thin films for Metal–Insulator–Metal applications

    Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 11, pp. 3831-3834

    2011

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.239

    Abstract anzeigen

    Atomic Vapor Deposition technique was applied for the depositions of Ti–Ta–O oxide films for Metal–Insulator–Metal capacitors used in back-end of line for Radio Frequency applications. Composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and electrical properties were studied. Ti–Ta–O films, with the ratio of Ta/Ti ~ 1.5, deposited at 400 °C on TiN electrodes, were amorphous and possessed a dielectric constant of 50 with low voltage linearity coefficients and leakage currents densities as low as 10− 7 A/cm2 at 1 V. The films, deposited on Si wafers, were amorphous up to the annealing temperature of 700 °C and crystallized in orthorhombic Ta2O5 phase at higher temperatures.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    S. Rushworth, Günther Ruhl, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger, C. Baristiran Kaynak

    Electrical characteristics of Ti-Ta-O based MIM capacitors

    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, vol. 29, no. 1

    2011

    DOI: 10.1116/1.3534020

    Abstract anzeigen

    Amorphous Ti–Ta–O thin films were deposited by the atomic-vapor deposition technique for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) applications. Depositions were carried out at 400 °C on 200-mm Si (100) wafers using TiN and TaN as bottom electrode materials. The comparison of electrical properties of MIM capacitors was done after physical-vapor deposited growth of different top electrodes, namely, Au, TiN, TaN, and Ti. Capacitance-voltage measurements revealed that the dielectric constant of 50 can be reached if Ti–Ta–O layers are deposited on TiN and if Au, TaN, or Ti is used as the top electrode. The k value is reduced to 37 if TaN is used as bottom electrode. However, if TiN is used as the top electrode, the k value of the stack is reduced by a factor of 3, from 50 to 17, independent of whether TiN or TaN are used as bottom electrodes. The lowest leakage current values (∼10−8 A/cm2) were observed when gold was used as the top electrode, whereas it increased by 3 orders of magnitude if the top electrode was changed to TiN and even more if the top electrode was changed to TaN or Ti.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    S. Rushworth, Günther Ruhl, B. Tillack, I. Costina, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger, C. Baristiran Kaynak

    Investigations of thermal annealing effects on electrical and structural properties of SrTaO based MIM capacitor

    Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 2561-2564

    2010

    DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2010.07.015

    Abstract anzeigen

    The annealing effects on dielectric and electrode materials in Ti/SrTaO/TaN/TiN/Ti/Si metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitors were studied. The electrical and structural properties were investigated after subjecting the samples to annealing temperatures of 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C. The electrical results revealed that the dielectric constant (k value) of Sr–Ta–O increased from 18 to 50 with increasing annealing temperature. This improvement in k value can be associated to the crystallization of dielectric layer. However, the leakage current density increased several orders of magnitudes with increase of the annealing temperatures. This observation was attributed to crystallization of dielectric, degradation of TaN electrode and out-diffusion of Si from the substrate.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Günther Ruhl, S. Pasko, H.-J. Müssig, M. Lukosius, C. Wenger, C. Lohe

    Influence of the electrode material on HfO2 metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 286-289

    2009

    DOI: 10.1116/1.3071843

    Abstract anzeigen

    TaN and TiN are investigated as bottom electrode materials for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor applications. Atomic vapor deposited HfO2 films are used as high-k dielectric. The influence of the interfacial layer between HfO2 and the bottom electrode on the electrical performance of MIM capacitors is evaluated. The capacitance density as well as the capacitance voltage linearity of high-k MIM capacitors is affected by the electrode material. There is also an impact by TaN and TiN on leakage current density and breakdown strength of the devices.

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    Vortrag

    Günther Ruhl, M. Lukosius

    Material Options for Integrated MIM Capacitors

    Eingeladener Vortrag

    WoDiM 2012, Dresden