Маглев Транспортные Технологии: как извлечь выгоду из такого фундаментального изменения технологической парадигмы, как принять участие в этом технологическом скачке? (Maglev Transport Technologies – how to benefit from such a fundamental technological paradigm shift, how to participate in this technological leap?).
Johannes Klühspies, M. Hoffmann, D. Fuchsberger
Schloss Nymphenburg ‐ Potentiale und Barrieren einer Nominierung als UNESCO Weltkulturerbe
Über Jahrhunderte und Kulturepochen hinweg spielte Schloss Nymphenburg eine entscheidende Rolle auf der Bühne der europäischen Kultur. Im Gesamtensemble von Kanälen, Schleusen, Brunnhäusern und Fontänen manifestieren sich dreihundert Jahre europäischer Technikgeschichte in München. Mit imposanten 632 Metern Fassadenbreite übertrifft das Schloss Nymphenburg zudem sämtliche Schlossbauten Europas, auch Versailles. Nymphenburg gilt als Ort der Erfindung des Rokokostils, es repräsentiert einen Markstein in Biedermeier und Romantik. Die sogenannten Parkburgen sind einzigartige kunstgeschichtliche Preziosen. Wegen dieses einzigartigen, außergewöhnlichen sowie universellen Wertes bestehen grundsätzlich gute Chancen für eine erfolgreiche Nominierung als Weltkulturerbe der UNESCO. Allerdings wird diese Perspektive durch die Planung eines modernistischen Museumsbaus („BIOTOPIA“) (2020) gefährdet. Teilabriss und Neubau im Altbaubestand des Schlosses bedrohen das idealtypische, auf strenge Symmetrie basierende, barocke Ensemble. Strukturen und Materialien werden gravierend verändert. Würde BIOTOPIA tatsächlich in den historischen Bestand Nymphenburgs hineingebaut, dürfte eine Bewerbung als UNESCO Weltkulturerbe dauerhaft unmöglich werden. Durch die bauliche Zerstörung des Nymphenburger Ensembles (durch ein neues Museum am falschen Ort) drohen sich München und der Freistaat Bayern eines kulturellen Erbes ersten Rangs zu berauben.
R. Kircher, R. Palka, E. Fritz, K. Eiler, M. Witt, L. Blow, Johannes Klühspies
Electromagnetic fields related to high speed transportation systems
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 152-166
Issue: The potential health risks on passengers and the environment related to electromagnetic fields caused by the operation of electrically driven high speed transportation systems has become a major issue. Especially the magnetic flux density or induction can generate physiological effects in body tissues. Aim: In this paper, we compare calculated and experimental values of electromagnetic fields in rail-wheel systems such as ICE with the Maglev-systems Transrapid and the JR Maglev-system, based on available data. Method: To estimate the impact on passengers, the field contributions generated by the power supply system as well as by the drive and suspension systems are taken into account. For the comparison, the peak values of the electromagnetic fields have been considered. Results: The results show, that there are no health risks from the electric fields. Regarding the magnetic induction, the calculated the peak values remain well below the limits given by national regulations. In the case of the Transrapid and the JR Maglev system, the measured peak values in the environment and inside the vehicle depend on the levitation and the guidance technology and the geometrical parameters. The JR Maglev system requires effective magnetic shielding measures which are connected with heavy materials. Since such materials may have a negative influence on the energy balance and the economics of operation, R&D efforts are focusing on the optimization of materials and the structure of shields. Conclusion: In high speed transportation systems there are no potential risks from electrical fields. Regarding magnetic fields, the induction generated by the power supply and the drive system remain well below the frequency dependent limits. The situation is different for magnetic levitation systems, depending on the suspension and guidance technology. Especially the JR Maglev requires effective shielding measures. The shielding materials may have a negative impact on the energy balance.
E. Fritz, Johannes Klühspies, R. Kircher, M. Witt, L. Blow
Energy consumption of track-based high-speed trains: maglev systems in comparison with wheel-rail systems
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3s1, pp. 134-155
Background: The energy consumption of a high-speed system is an important part of its total operational costs. This paper compares the secondary energy demand of different wheel-rail systems, such as ICE, TGV and Shinkansen, and maglev systems, such as Transrapid and Chuo Shinkansen.
In the past, energy values of systems with different conditions (train configuration, dimension, capacity, maximum speed) were frequently compared. The comparative values were often represented by the specific energy consumption based on passenger capacity and line-kilometer values.
Aim: The goal is to find a way to compare the specific energy consumption of different high-speed systems without any distortion of results.
Methods: A comparison of energy values based on normative usable areas inside the high-speed systems will be described and evaluated in this paper, transforming the results to a more distortion-free comparison of energy consumption of different systems.
Results: The results show the energy consumption as an important characteristic parameter of high-speed transportation systems based on an objective comparison and give ranges of expected energy demand of different systems dependent on maximum speed level.
Conclusion: Up to the design speed of wheel-rail systems there are slight advantages in terms of energy consumption for the Transrapid maglev. From the perspective of energy consumption under consideration to reduce travel time, high-speed maglev systems represent a promising option for new railway projects. However, a project-specific system decision must be based on a complete life-cycle cost analysis, including investment cost
Maglev trends in public transport: the perspectives of maglev transportation systems
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3 Suppl. 1, pp. 5-12
The idea of considering Maglev systems challenges established ways of thinking on how to deal with an increasing transport demand. Today, the railway industry seems focused on traditional business models that profit from friction, wear and tear of established conventional transport systems. Maglev Systems have begun to challenge those traditional business concepts. Maglev is a fundamentally different concept of transport – which might explain the reluctance, even ignorance, which Maglev systems continue to face.
Martina Hekler, Johannes Klühspies
Disruptive Technologies Transforming Urban Mobility? The Role of the Ecobee Urban Maglev System in the Seoul Traffic Vision 2030, South Korea
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3 Suppl. 1, pp. 115-123
The dynamics and extent of disruptive technologies have been very well developed in Asian cities by the beginning of the 21st century, and are becoming particularly future-oriented. It also appears that urban mobility strategies in Asia are hardly slowed by resistance such as seen in the European context, where holding on to existing systems is the norm. The effects of accelerated mobility strategies in Asia are already apparent compared to what may be expected in Europe. So one could ask, which innovation processes will allow mobility to further develop? How will urban transport systems likely change in the future to minimize adverse impacts of current forms of mobility? In looking forward, any implementation of innovative mobility strategies heavily depends on spatial structures, transport networks and technologies as well as a political planning and decision-making. In Asia, concepts of transport and innovative transportation concepts (such as Rotem’s Ecobee Urban Maglev) are developing with considerable promise, which, if successful, can turn into trendsetters with considerable future relevance on a global scale.
M. Wenk, Johannes Klühspies, L. Blow, R. Kircher, E. Fritz, M. Witt, Martina Hekler
Practical Investigation of Future Perspectives and Limitations of Maglev Technologies: Results of an International Survey among Transport Experts and Specialists Maglev
Transportation Systems and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3 Suppl. 1, pp. 85-104
Results of an International Survey among Transport Experts and Specialists Maglev.
With the aim of tracking current trends in the market perspectives of magnetic levitation, or maglev technologies, the non-profit International Maglev Board conducted a primary study in the spring of 2018 among maglev specialists and transportation professionals. More than 1 000 professionals took part in the survey. Main topics of the study are questions comparing the suitability of conventional wheel-on-rail and maglev technologies according to application areas. Predicted opportunities and developments in maglev technology, acceptance issues and research needs are analyzed. The results are broken down by expertise and nationality of the participants. This short version presents selected findings of the survey in compressed form.
Background: There is an obvious need for information on international trends in the application of Maglev transport technologies. The study attempts to grasp the global dimension of magnetic levitation developments in a structured way.
Aim: To track current trends in magnetic levitation transport system innovation. Identify perspectives, research tasks and implementation barriers. Comparison of magnetic levitation systems with steel wheel systems. Analysis of the key topics of the debate.
Methods: Primary study in spring 2018 among 1 058 maglev specialists and transport experts. Internet-based online survey.
Results: The ratings vary greatly according to the expertise and origin of the respondents. In certain fields of application, wheel-rail systems remain the preferred transport technology. But in certain other fields of application, maglev technologies have become preferred over conventional steel-wheel-rail by a majority of transport professionals. This is particularly the case for high-speed maglev transport and for the new application of maglev elevators in buildings. At the same time, many respondents see a continuing need for research.
Conclusion: Overall, there is a differentiated picture. Respondents from North and South America, Russia and Asia are on average particularly open to an implementation of certain maglev technologies.