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    Elektrotechnik und Medientechnik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    H. Heckelmüller, F. Kendl, Gerhard Krump

    TDR Einzahlwert zur Charakterisierung der dynamischen Oberbausteifigkeit

    ZEVrail - Zeitschrift für das gesamte System Bahn, vol. 144, no. Mai, pp. 190-194

    2020

    Abstract anzeigen

    Der Schallmesswagen (SMW) der DB Systemtechnik prüft den akustischen Zustand des Oberbaus und wird vor allem zur Überprüfung von Streckenabschnitten mit der Maßnahme „Besonders überwachtes Gleis“ (BüG) verwendet. Zusätzlich wird der SMW zur Qualitätskontrolle und Abnahme des akustischen Schienenschleifens eingesetzt. Falls ein BüG-Abschnitt nicht vom SMW befahren werden kann, gilt seit 2001 die Ersatzmaßnahme RMF-BüG. Dieses Verfahren soll die Messaufgaben des SMW durch kontinuierliche Rauheitsmessungen beider Schienen ersatzweise übernehmen können. Beim RMF-BüG-Verfahren wurde zur Berechnung des SMW-Pegels ausschließlich die Schienenrauheit berücksichtigt. Anhand einer Vielzahl von Messungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass das Rollgeräusch des SMW signifikant ebenfalls von der Gleisabklingrate (Track Decay Rate TDR) abhängig ist. Das vorgestellte Verfahren zeigt die Verwendung des Einzahlwertes der Schienenrauheit LλCA und des Einzahlwertes der TDR L TDR zur Bestimmung des SMW-Pegels.

    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    T. Talanow, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, J. Lippold, B. Weber, U. Ettinger

    Neural Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Inhibition of Saccadic Eye Movements

    Brain Imaging and Behavior, vol. 14, pp. 72-88

    2020

    DOI: 10.1007/s11682-018-9972-3

    Abstract anzeigen

    Although research on goal-directed, proactive inhibitory control (IC) and stimulus-driven, reactive IC is growing, no previous study has compared proactive IC in conditions of uncertainty with regard to upcoming inhibition to conditions of certain upcoming IC. Therefore, we investigated effects of certainty and uncertainty on behavior and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in proactive and reactive IC. In two studies, healthy adults performed saccadic go/no-go and prosaccade/antisaccade tasks. The certainty manipulation had a highly significant behavioral effect in both studies, with inhibitory control being more successful under certain than uncertain conditions on both tasks (p ≤ 0.001). Saccadic go responses were significantly less efficient under conditions of uncertainty than certain responding (p < 0.001). Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (one study) revealed a dissociation of certainty- and uncertainty-related proactive inhibitory neural correlates in the go/no-go task, with lateral and medial prefrontal and occipital cortex showing stronger deactivations during uncertainty than during certain upcoming inhibition, and lateral parietal cortex being activated more strongly during certain upcoming inhibition than uncertainty or certain upcoming responding. In the antisaccade task, proactive BOLD effects arose due to stronger deactivations in uncertain response conditions of both tasks and before certain prosaccades than antisaccades. Reactive inhibition-related BOLD increases occurred in inferior parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) in the go/no-go task only. Proactive IC may imply focusing attention on the external environment for encoding salient or alerting events as well as inhibitory mechanisms that reduce potentially distracting neural processes. SMG and inferior parietal cortex may play an important role in both proactive and reactive IC of saccades.

    Angewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Marcus Dittrich, S. Städter

    Monitoring 'lemons': Why lower productivity workers are sometimes monitored more closely

    [Forthcoming publication]

    Applied Economics Letters

    2020

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Thomas Stirner, David Scholz, J. Sun

    Convergence of surface energy calculations for various methods: (001), (012), (100) hematite and the applicability of the standard approach

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 32, no. 18

    2020

    DOI: 10.1088/1361-648X/ab6f88

    Abstract anzeigen

    Three different methods for the calculation of the surface energy, namely the standard approach, the Boettger relation and the linear-fit method, are applied to the (0 0 1), (0 1 2) and (1 0 0) hematite surfaces. The standard approach was previously shown to suffer from a divergence problem, and the Boettger relation was shown to exhibit quantum size effects. While the linear-fit method, in general, leads to a good convergence behavior of the surface energy, the questions arise whether the relative order of the calculated surface energies depends on the chosen calculation method, and whether there is any merit at all in employing the standard approach. The present work investigates these questions with hematite as a benchmark material system. The simulations show that, for the surface facets and slab thicknesses studied here, the relative order of the surface energies is unaffected by the chosen calculation method. A regime is found where the three methods are in reasonably good agreement with respect to the obtained surface energies. Finally, a procedure is put forward to extract meaningful surface energy values from the standard approach.

    GesundAngewandte Gesundheitswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Stephanie Hecht

    Bewegungsbezogene Gesundheitskompetenz (bGK). Die Vermittlung von bGK in der Lehre für eine qualitativ hochwertige Klientenversorgung

    PADUA - Die Fachzeitschrift für Pflegepädagogik, Patientenedukation und -bildung, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-7

    2020

    DOI: 10.1024/1861-6186/a000529

    Abstract anzeigen

    Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität birgt enorme gesundheitsförderliche Wirkungen. Ein Großteil der Bevölkerung erreicht jedoch die Mindestempfehlungen für Bewegung nicht. Das Konstrukt Bewegungsbezogene Gesundheitskompetenz adaptiert Ressourcen und Barrieren, um körperliche Aktivität bestmöglich zu initiieren und zu verstetigen. Die Umsetzung verlangt hoch kompetente Gesundheitsexperten, die unterschiedliche Handlungsansätze für die Bedarfe einer Zielgruppe bzw. eines Menschen entwickeln.

    GesundAngewandte Gesundheitswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Bernhard Bleyer

    Casuistry: On a Method of Ethical Judgement in Patient Care

    HealthCare Ethics Committee (HEC) Forum, no. Published 09 March 2020, pp. 1-16

    2020

    DOI: 10.1007/s10730-020-09396-7

    Abstract anzeigen

    The article is dedicated to the application questions of a case study method known as casuistry. In its long tradition, it focuses on an influential variant of the early modern period and reconstructs its functionality. In the course of reading recent receptions, it is noted that some studies speak of a “casuistic revival” in moral case deliberation in health care. As a result of this revival, casuistry has been modified in such a way that it guides case discussions in practice with the help of a tripartite methodology (morphology, taxonomy, and kinetics). However, as it turns out, casuistry, a case comparison method of ethical judgement based on reasoning logic, is less suitable for moral case deliberations in direct patient care. This stems from the fact that casuistry is a detailed procedure of ethical learning beneficial to institutionalized ethics committees or similar forms of ethics consultation in health care.

    DigitalAngewandte InformatikTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    J. Trager, L. Kalová, Raphaela Pagany, Wolfgang Dorner

    Warning apps for road safety – a technological and economical perspective for autonomous driving

    [Article submitted]

    International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction

    2020

    DigitalAngewandte InformatikTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Raphaela Pagany

    Wildlife-vehicle collisions—Influencing factors, data collection and research methods

    [Article submitted]

    Biological Conservation

    2020

    GesundAngewandte Gesundheitswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    N. Schmidkonz, Doris Eberhardt

    Mit Leadership zur personenzentrierten Vermittlung von Gesundheitsinformationen

    Ein Praxisentwicklungsprojekt zur Förderung selbständiger Bewegung nach Kniegelenksimplantation

    PADUA - Die Fachzeitschrift für Pflegepädagogik, Patientenedukation und -bildung, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 31-37

    2020

    GesundAngewandte Gesundheitswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    C. Kölblin, Doris Eberhardt

    Bedürfnisgerechte Information von Angehörigen kritisch Kranker

    Eine Analyse des Informationsangebots auf Webseiten bayrischer Intensivstationen

    PADUA - Die Fachzeitschrift für Pflegepädagogik, Patientenedukation und -bildung, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 15-22

    2020

    DigitalMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    F. Heilmeier, R. Koos, Peter Hornberger, Jochen Hiller, et al.

    Calibration of cast-in Fibre-Bragg-Gratings for internal strain measurements in cast aluminium by using neutron diffraction

    [Submitted for publication]

    Measurement

    2020

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Christoph Metzke, Werner Frammelsberger, Jonas Weber, F. Kühnel, K. Zhu, M. Lanza, Günther Benstetter

    On the Limits of Scanning Thermal Microscopy of Ultrathin Films

    Materials, vol. 13, no. 3

    2020

    DOI: 10.3390/ma13030518

    Abstract anzeigen

    Heat transfer processes in micro- and nanoscale devices have become more and more important during the last decades. Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based method for analyzing local thermal conductivities of layers with thicknesses in the range of several nm to µm. In this work, we investigate ultrathin films of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), copper iodide in zincblende structure (γ-CuI) and some test sample structures fabricated of silicon (Si) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) using SThM. Specifically, we analyze and discuss the influence of the sample topography, the touching angle between probe tip and sample, and the probe tip temperature on the acquired results. In essence, our findings indicate that SThM measurements include artefacts that are not associated with the thermal properties of the film under investigation. We discuss possible ways of influence, as well as the magnitudes involved. Furthermore, we suggest necessary measuring conditions that make qualitative SThM measurements of ultrathin films of h-BN with thicknesses at or below 23 nm possible.

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    W. Ni, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, C. Niu, H. Fan, G. Song, D. Liu, Günther Benstetter, G. Lei

    Effect of intermittent He/D ion irradiations on W nano-fuzz growth over W targets

    Vacuum, vol. 173, no. March

    2020

    DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2019.109146

    Abstract anzeigen

    The intermittent He/D ion irradiations of polycrystalline W have been performed at the ion energy of 50 eV by changing the time of the single irradiations and the irradiation temperature. All irradiated W specimens have been observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the effect of intermittent He/D ion irradiations on the W fuzz growth has been analyzed. The W fuzz growth over W targets does not show the clear dependence on the intermittent He/D ion irradiations, where the He/D ion fluence of the single irradiations typically varies from 5.0 × 1024 to 2.5 × 1025/m2. However, a slight change in the W surface temperature during the single He ion irradiations significantly affects the W fuzz growth rate. Analysis indicates that W fuzz growth is significantly affected by the total He ion fluence varying from 5.0 × 1024 to 5.0 × 1025/m2 and the irradiation temperature varying from 1100 to 1450 K. This current study will play a crucial role in understanding the W fuzz growth under the periodic He/D ion irradiations of W divertor in fusion reactors, such as ELMs.

    DigitalAngewandte InformatikTC Grafenau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Ali Fallah Tehrani, M. Strickert, Diane Ahrens

    Class of Monotone Kernelized Classifiers on the basis of the Choquet Integral

    Expert Systems, vol. 37, no. First published: 21 January 2020, pp. 1-15

    2020

    DOI: 10.1111/exsy.12506

    Abstract anzeigen

    The key property of monotone classifiers is that increasing (decreasing) input values lead to increasing (decreasing) the output value. Preserving monotonicity for a classifier typically requires many constraints to be respected by modeling approaches such as artificial intelligence techniques. The type of constraints strongly depends on the modeling assumptions. Of course, for sophisticated models such conditions might be very complex. In this study we present a new family of kernels that we call it Choquet kernels. Henceforth it allows for employing popular kernel‐based methods such as support vector machines. Instead of a naïve approach with exponential computational complexity we propose an equivalent formulation with quadratic time in the number of attributes. Furthermore, since coefficients derived from kernel solutions are not necessarily monotone in the dual form, different approaches are proposed to monotonize coefficients. Finally experiments illustrate beneficial properties of the Choquet kernels.

    DigitalAngewandte InformatikAngewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Marco Kretschmann, Andreas Fischer, Benedikt Elser

    Extracting Keywords from Publication Abstracts for an Automated Researcher Recommendation System

    Digitale Welt, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 20-25

    2020

    DOI: 10.1007/s42354-019-0227-2

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper presents an automated keyword assignment system for scientific abstracts. That system is applied to paper abstracts collected in a local publication database and used to drive a researcher recommendation system. Problems like low data volume and missing keywords are discussed. For remediation, training is performed on an extended data set based on large online publication databases. Additionally a closer look at label imbalance in the dataset is taken. Ten multi-label classification algorithms for assigning keywords from a given catalogue to a scientific abstract are compared. The usage of binary relevance as transformation method with LightGBM as classifier yields the best results. Random oversampling before the training phase additionally increases the F1-Score by around 5-6%.

    DigitalAngewandte InformatikTC Grafenau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Ali Fallah Tehrani, M. Strickert, Diane Ahrens

    A Class of Monotone Kernelized Classifiers on the Basis of the Chopuet Integral

    [Accepted for publication]

    Expert Systems

    2020

    NachhaltigTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Poque González, Y. Masip Macia, Javier Valdés, Luis Ramirez Camargo

    Cogeneración en Chile: Capacidades, desarrollo y perspectivas

    [Status: In Press]

    Avances en Energías Renovables y Medio Ambiente (AVERMA)

    2020

    Abstract anzeigen

    RESUMEN: En Chile, el proyecto de cogeneración más antiguo data de 1930 y operó hasta el año 1997. Sin embargo, pese a que la tecnología lleva introducida largo tiempo, pocos son los estudios que han analizado el potencial de CHP y su evolución. Un primer paso para el estudio del potencial del país es la creación de un catastro que incluya la capacidad instalada. El interés de este ejercicio radica en el potencial de integración de mayores cantidades de CHP en el sistema eléctrico con el objetivo de hacer frente a la intermitencia de fuentes de energía no convencionales. Además, las plantas CHP pueden ayudar a alcanzar los objetivos de eficiencia energética gracias a la posibilidad de los generadores de volcar a la red tanto la electricidad como calor no consumido en los procesos productivos. Sin embargo, para que esto ocurra es necesario el desarrollo de un marco regulatorio acorde a las capacidades y características de las plantas de CHP. El objetivo de este artículo es precisamente identificar las características de las instalaciones en industrias específicas, así como su evolución, con el objetivo de extrapolar los datos al resto de la economía y obtener un potencial de CHP para el país. Para ello, se han hecho consultas de catastros anteriores, así como entrevistas con empresas para conocer el estado actual del parque de plantas de CHP en el país. Palabras clave: cogeneración, eficiencia energética, flexibilidad del sistema eléctrico 1.

    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    I. Meyhöfer, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, M. Steffens, U. Ettinger

    Effects of nicotine on smooth pursuit eye movements in healthy non-smokers

    Psychopharmacology, vol. 236, pp. 2259-2271

    2019

    DOI: 10.1007/s00213-019-05223-1

    Abstract anzeigen

    Rationale The non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine has been argued to improve attention via enhanced filtering of irrelevant stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis in the context of smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEMs), an oculomotor function previously shown to improve with nicotine in some but not all studies. Objectives In order to test whether nicotine improves performance particularly when the inhibition of distracting stimuli is required, SPEM was elicited in conditions with or without peripheral distractors. Additionally, different target frequencies were employed in order to parametrically vary general processing demands on the SPEM system. Methods Healthy adult non-smokers (N = 18 females, N = 13 males) completed a horizontal sinusoidal SPEM task at different target frequencies (0.2 Hz, 0.4 Hz, 0.6 Hz) in the presence or absence of peripheral distractors in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design using a 2 mg nicotine gum. Results Nicotine increased peak pursuit gain relative to placebo (p < .001), but an interaction with distractor condition (p = .001) indicated that this effect was most pronounced in the presence of distractors. Catch-up saccade frequency was reduced by nicotine (p = .01), particularly at higher target frequencies (two-way interaction, p = .04). However, a three-way interaction (p = .006) indicated that the reduction with nicotine was strongest at the highest target frequency (0.6 Hz) only without distractors, whereas in the presence of distractors, it was strongest at 0.4-Hz target frequency. There were no effects of nicotine on subjective state measures. Conclusions Together, these findings support a role of both distractor inhibition and general processing load in the effects of nicotine on smooth pursuit.

    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, N. Petrovsky, P.-M. Schmidt, P. Trautner, B. Weber, B. Sträter, U. Ettinger

    Effects of Nicotine and Atomoxetine on Brain Function During Response Inhibition

    European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 2 (February), pp. 235-246

    2019

    DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2018.12.004

    Abstract anzeigen

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine and the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor atomoxetine are widely studied substances due to their propensity to alleviate cognitive deficits in psychiatric and neurological patients and their beneficial effects on some aspects of cognitive functions in healthy individuals. However, despite growing evidence of acetylcholine-noradrenaline interactions, there are only very few direct comparisons of the two substances. Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine and atomoxetine on response inhibition in the stop-signal task and we characterised the neural correlates of these effects using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T. Nicotine (7 mg dermal patch) and atomoxetine (60 mg per os) were applied to N = 26 young, healthy adults in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, within-subjects design. BOLD images were collected during a stop-signal task that controlled for infrequency of stop trials. There were no drug effects on behavioural performance or subjective state measures. However, there was a pronounced upregulation of activation in bilateral prefrontal and left parietal cortex following nicotine during successful compared to unsuccessful stop trials. The effect of nicotine on BOLD during failed stop trials was correlated across individuals with a measure of trait impulsivity. Atomoxetine, however, had no discernible effects on BOLD. We conclude that nicotine effects on brain function during inhibitory control are most pronounced in individuals with higher levels of impulsivity. This finding is compatible with previous evidence of nicotine effects on stop-signal task performance in highly impulsive individuals and implicates the nAChR in the neural basis of impulsivity.

    NachhaltigEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Robert Feicht, Jennifer Huber, Anna Marquardt

    Education for Sustainable Development – approaches by the InnoLab for Sustainability at the European Campus Rottal-Inn

    Bavarian Journal of Applied Sciences (Spotlights section), vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 486-493

    2019

    DOI: 10.25929/bjas.v5i1.69