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    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Werner Bogner, Johannes Jakob, R. Weigel, Franz Xaver Röhrl, Stefan Zorn

    Bare die connections via aerosol jet technology for millimeter wave applications

    International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, vol. 11, no. Special Issue 5-6 (EuMW 2018 Special Issue (Part I)) [June], pp. 441-446

    2019

    DOI: 10.1017/S1759078719000114

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper presents a comparison of chip connections using aerosol jet (AJ) and bond technology on low-cost printed circuit board (PCB) substrates. First, the behavior of the used gap filler material and the used silver ink for AJ technology on PCBs are characterized. In addition to comparing the radio frequency (RF) performance (DC to 67 GHz) of the two technologies, the mechanical stability is also compared. While the AJ technology transitions score above all for their RF performance and the lower requirements (surface finish, pad size, and adhesion) on the PCB, the bonding technology has clear advantages, especially with a different coefficient of thermal expansion values of the substrates to be connected. Finally, the measurement results of a complete package are shown, whereby the chip connection is realized once by means of AJ and once by bonding wires.

    DigitalElektrotechnik und MedientechnikInstitut ProtectIT

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Andreas Grzemba, Karl Leidl

    Secure per Machine Learning - Wie KI die Informationssicherheit verbessern kann

    Computer & Automation (Sonderheft Safety & Security), no. Juni

    2019

    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Irmgard Tischner, H. Malson, K. Fey

    Leading ladies: discursive constructions of women leaders in the UK media

    Feminist Media Studies, no. Published online: 10 July 2019

    2019

    DOI: 10.1080/14680777.2019.1640266

    Abstract anzeigen

    Women continue to be economically disadvantaged and under-represented in positions of power and leadership. A discursive disjunction between cultural and media representations of women and leadership has been implicated in these continuing inequalities. We address this issue through an analysis of the ways in which prominent women leaders were portrayed in a UK radio series, BBC Radio 4’s “Profile” broadcast between July 2011 and July 2013. Verbatim transcripts of 12 broadcasts featuring women were analysed within a critical feminist framework, to explore the ways in which these women leaders were discursively constructed. Our analysis explicates three constructions of “women leaders”: as “traditionally” feminine; as having to balance “masculine” and “feminine” attributes; and as exceptional women who may nevertheless fail. We conclude that the impact of equality legislation continues to be limited while androcentric norms prevail and that we therefore need more gynocentric ways of imagining women leaders.

    Angewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Marcus Dittrich

    Union membership and employment dynamics: The role of the union objective function

    Theoretical Economics Letters, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1473-1479

    2019

    DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.95094

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper studies the behaviour of a labour union in a model with employment and membership dynamics. It is known from the literature that the relative level of employment between intertemporal and static union models is affected by the structure of the union density function. We show that this result does not hold in general but rather that it depends on the union objective function. If the union maximises the wage bill of their members, employment in the intertemporal model will differ from employment in the static model depending on the union density function. However, if the union maximises the rent from unionisation, the intertemporal model will yield the same level of employment as the static model regardless of the union density.

    GesundAngewandte Gesundheitswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    S. Kuphal, S. Lamm, Melanie Kappelmann-Fenzl, S. Meierjohann, L. Feuerer, S. Haferkamp, C. Hellerbrand, A. Bosserhoff, I. Henz

    Role of MIA (melanoma inhibitory activity) in melanocyte senescence

    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, no. First Published: 06 June 2019

    2019

    DOI: 10.1111/pcmr.12801

    Abstract anzeigen

    The protein MIA is known to be expressed in melanoma and to support melanoma progression. Interestingly, previous studies also observed the expression of MIA in nevi. Concentrating on these findings, we revealed that MIA expression is correlated with a senescent state in melanocytes. Induction of replicative or oncogene‐induced senescence resulted in increased MIA expression in vitro. Notably, MIA‐knockdown in senescent melanocytes reduced the percentage of senescence‐associated beta‐Gal‐positive cells and enhanced proliferation. Using the melanoma mouse model Tg(Grm1), MIA‐deficient mice supported the impact of MIA on senescence by showing a significantly earlier tumor onset compared to controls. In melanocytes, MIA‐knockdown led to a downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, after induction of hTERT in human melanoma cells, p21 regulation by MIA was lost. In summary, our data show for the first time that MIA is a regulator of cellular senescence in human and murine melanocytes.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenTAZ Spiegelau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    J.-M. Batke, S. Wittman, Günther Ruhl, I. Costina, M. Lemme, T. Preis, M. König, A. Gahoi

    Accurate Graphene-Metal Junction Characterization

    IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society (J-EDS), vol. 7, pp. 219-226

    2019

    DOI: 10.1109/JEDS.2019.2891516

    Abstract anzeigen

    A reliable method is proposed for measuring specific contact resistivity (p C ) for graphenemetal contacts, which is based on a contact end resistance measurement. We investigate the proposed method with simulations and confirm that the sheet resistance under the metal contact (R SK ) plays an important role, as it influences the potential barrier at the graphene-metal junction. Two different complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible aluminum-based contacts are investigated to demonstrate the importance of the sheet resistance under the metal contact: the difference in R SK arises from the formation of insulating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and aluminum carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) interfacial layers, which depends on the graphene pretreatment and process conditions. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy support electrical data. The method allows direct measurements of contact parameters with one contact pair and enables small test structures. It is further more reliable than the conventional transfer length method when the sheet resistance of the material under the contact is large. The proposed method is thus ideal for geometrically small contacts where it minimizes measurement errors and it can be applied in particular to study emerging devices and materials.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Hongyu Zhang, Jizhong Sun, Ali Hamid, Thomas Stirner, Arvind Jadon

    Molecular dynamics simulations of helium clustering and bubble growth under tungsten surfaces

    Computational Materials Science, vol. 163, no. June, pp. 141-147

    2019

    DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2019.03.008

    Abstract anzeigen

    We study the surface response of W to helium bombardment using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations have been performed for incident helium of energy 80 eV and surface temperature 2100 K. The saturation of He retention has been observed to be high, a result of the bubbles trapping helium atoms and preventing them from diffusing to the surface and further back into the plasma. On the other hand, we have observe near-surface “cluster rupture” leading to the expulsion of helium atoms towards the vacuum. We have found that bubbles typically grow in a relatively narrow band of He/V ratios (1–3). Besides, it was observed that tungsten atoms migrated from the top surface into the bulk. The coalescence of helium bubbles has also been observed.

    Angewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Jutta Stirner

    WEG-Reform - Disziplinierung faktisch unkontrollierter Verwalter

    Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik, vol. 52, no. Januar, pp. 16-18

    2019

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Thomas Stirner, David Scholz

    Convergence of surface energy calculations for various methods: (0 0 1) hematite as benchmark

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 31, no. 19

    2019

    DOI: 10.1088/1361-648X/ab069d

    Abstract anzeigen

    Different methods for calculating the surface energy from ab initio simulations are applied to the relaxed (0 0 1) surface of the metal oxide hematite ([Formula: see text]-Fe2O3). The simulations are carried out with a rather moderate k-point grid with shrinking factors of (6 6 6) for all bulk and (6 6) for all slab simulations. Very good convergence is obtained if a linear fit of the slab energies with respect to the number of layers in the slab is performed. In comparison to the other methods employed, this procedure is ultimately the most accurate and reliable method for extracting convergent surface energies from (0 0 1) hematite slabs. Additionally, we propose a way to determine the least possible starting point for calculating the surface energy by the linear-fit method. Furthermore, we find the Boettger method to perform nearly equally well, if the bulk energy is extracted from the energy difference per layer between the slabs with 12 and 18 layers thickness. Both methods give a surface energy of 2.43 J m-2 with a deviation of less than [Formula: see text]0.005 J m-2. The standard approach, which uses a separate bulk simulation, instead shows a significant linear divergence with increasing number of layers in the slab. We also carried out bulk simulations with a surface-oriented bulk unit cell, but found it in our case not to improve the convergence of the standard approach.

    MobilElektrotechnik und MedientechnikTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Raphaela Pagany, Anna Marquardt, Roland Zink

    Electric Charging Demand Location Model—A User- and Destination-Based Locating Approach for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 8

    2019

    DOI: 10.3390/su11082301

    Abstract anzeigen

    In recent years, with the increased focus on climate protection, electric vehicles (EVs) have become a relevant alternative to conventional motorized vehicles. Even though the market share of EVs is still comparatively low, there are ongoing considerations for integrating EVs in transportation systems. Along with pushing EV sales numbers, the installation of charging infrastructure is necessary. This paper presents a user- and destination-based approach for locating charging stations (CSs) for EVs—the electric charging demand location (ECDL) model. With regard to the daily activities of potential EV users, potential positions for CSs are derived on a micro-location level in public and semipublic spaces using geographic information systems (GIS). Depending on the vehicle users’ dwell times and visiting frequencies at potential points of interest (POIs), the charging demand at such locations is calculated. The model is mainly based on a survey analyzing the average time spent per daily activity, regional data about driver and vehicle ownership numbers, and the georeferenced localization of regularly visited POIs. Optimal sites for parking and charging EVs within the POIs neighborhood are selected based on walking distance calculations, including spatial neighborhood effects, such as the density of POIs. In a case study in southeastern Germany, the model identifies concrete places with the highest overall demand for CSs, resulting in an extensive coverage of the electric energy demand while considering as many destinations within the acceptable walking distance threshold as possible.

    DigitalMobilElektrotechnik und MedientechnikInstitut ProtectIT

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Nicolas Tiefnig, Martin Schramm, D. Fiala, Laurin Dörr, Michael Heigl

    A Resource-Preserving Self-Regulating Uncoupled MAC Algorithm to be Applied in Incident Detection

    Computers & Security, vol. 85, no. August, pp. 270-285

    2019

    DOI: 10.1016/j.cose.2019.05.010

    Abstract anzeigen

    The connectivity of embedded systems is increasing accompanied with thriving technology such as Internet of Things/Everything (IoT/E), Connected Cars, Smart Cities, Industry 4.0, 5G or Software-Defined Everything. Apart from the benefits of these trends, the continuous networking offers hackers a broad spectrum of attack vectors. The identification of attacks or unknown behavior through Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) has established itself as a conducive and mandatory mechanism apart from the protection by cryptographic schemes in a holistic security eco-system. In systems where resources are valuable goods and stand in contrast to the ever increasing amount of network traffic, sampling has become a useful utility in order to detect malicious activities on a manageable amount of data. In this work an algorithm – Uncoupled MAC – is presented which secures network communication through a cryptographic scheme by uncoupled Message Authentication Codes (MAC) but as a side effect also provides IDS functionality producing alarms based on the violation of Uncoupled MAC values. Through a novel self-regulation extension, the algorithm adapts it’s sampling parameters based on the detection of malicious actions. The evaluation in a virtualized environment clearly shows that the detection rate increases over runtime for different attack scenarios. Those even cover scenarios in which intelligent attackers try to exploit the downsides of sampling.

    Europan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Michelle Cummings-Koether

    Psychological Contracts: Effect on International Assignments

    SIETAR España Knowledge Bite, vol. 5

    2019

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    L. Larcher, F. Puglisi, L. Jiang, Jonas Weber, Günther Benstetter, P. Pavan, M. Lanza, Werner Frammelsberger

    Understanding Current Instabilities in Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    Materials, vol. 12, no. 3

    2019

    DOI: 10.3390/ma12030459

    Abstract anzeigen

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) is one of the most powerful techniques in studying the electrical properties of various materials at the nanoscale. However, understanding current fluctuations within one study (due to degradation of the probe tips) and from one study to another (due to the use of probe tips with different characteristics), are still two major problems that may drive CAFM researchers to extract wrong conclusions. In this manuscript, these two issues are statistically analyzed by collecting experimental CAFM data and processing them using two different computational models. Our study indicates that: (i) before their complete degradation, CAFM tips show a stable state with degraded conductance, which is difficult to detect and it requires CAFM tip conductivity characterization before and after the CAFM experiments; and (ii) CAFM tips with low spring constants may unavoidably lead to the presence of a ~1.2 nm thick water film at the tip/sample junction, even if the maximum contact force allowed by the setup is applied. These two phenomena can easily drive CAFM users to overestimate the properties of the samples under test (e.g., oxide thickness). Our study can help researchers to better understand the current shifts that were observed during their CAFM experiments, as well as which probe tip to use and how it degrades. Ultimately, this work may contribute to enhancing the reliability of CAFM investigations.

    MobilAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Michael Drexl, C. Tilk, S. Irnich

    Nested Branch-and-Price-and-Cut for Vehicle Routing Problems with Multiple Resource Interdependencies

    European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 276, no. 2, pp. 549-565

    2019

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.01.041

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper considers vehicle routing problems (VRPs) with multiple resource interdependencies and addresses the development and computational evaluation of an exact branch-and-price-and-cut algorithm for their solution. An interdependency between two resources means that the two resource consumptions influence one another in such a way that a tradeoff exists between them. This impacts the feasibility and/or the cost of a solution. The subproblem in branch-and-price-and-cut procedures for VRPs is very often a variant of the shortest-path problem with resource constraints (SPPRC). For the exact solution of many SPPRC variants, dynamic-programming based labeling algorithms are predominant. The tradeoffs in problems with multiple resource interdependencies, however, render the application of labeling algorithms unpromising. This is because complex data structures for managing the tradeoff curves are necessary and only weak dominance criteria are possible, so that the labeling algorithm becomes almost a pure enumeration. Therefore, we propose to solve also the SPPRC subproblem with branch-and-price-and-cut. This results in a two-level, nested branch-and-price-and-cut algorithm. We analyze different variants of the algorithm to enable the exchange of columns and also rows between the different levels. To demonstrate the computational viability of our approach, we perform computational experiments on a prototypical VRP with time windows, minimal and maximal delivery quantities for each customer, a customer-dependent profit paid for each demand unit delivered, and temporal synchronization constraints between some pairs of customers. In this problem, tradeoffs exist between cost and load and between cost and time.

    MobilElektrotechnik und MedientechnikTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Raphaela Pagany, Wolfgang Dorner

    Do Crash Barriers and Fences Have an Impact on Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions? An Artificial Intelligence and GIS-Based Analysis

    ISPRS Internation Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 8, no. 2

    2019

    DOI: 10.3390/ijgi8020066

    Abstract anzeigen

    Wildlife–vehicle collisions (WVCs) cause significant road mortality of wildlife and have led to the installation of protective measures along streets. Until now, it has been difficult to determine the impact of roadside infrastructure that might act as a barrier for animals. The main deficits are the lack of geodata for roadside infrastructure and georeferenced accidents recorded for a larger area. We analyzed 113 km of road network of the district Freyung-Grafenau, Germany, and 1571 WVCs, examining correlations between the appearance of WVCs, the presence or absence of roadside infrastructure, particularly crash barriers and fences, and the relevance of the blocking effect for individual species. To receive infrastructure data on a larger scale, we analyzed 5596 road inspection images with a neural network for barrier recognition and a GIS for a complete spatial inventory. This data was combined with the data of WVCs in GIS to evaluate the infrastructure’s impact on accidents. The results show that crash barriers have an effect on WVCs, as collisions are lower on roads with crash barriers. In particular, smaller animals have a lower collision share. The risk reduction at fenced sections could not be proven as fenced sections are only available at 3% of the analyzed roads. Thus, especially the fence dataset must be validated by a larger sample number. However, these preliminary results indicate that the combination of artificial intelligence and GIS may be used to analyze and better allocate protective barriers or to apply it in alternative measures, such as dynamic WVC risk-warning.

    NachhaltigTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Javier Valdés, Luis Ramirez Camargo, Y. Masip Macia, A. Poque González

    Cogeneración en Chile: Capacidades, desarrollo y perspectivas

    [Status: In Press]

    Avances en Energías Renovables y Medio Ambiente (AVERMA)

    2019

    Abstract anzeigen

    RESUMEN: En Chile, el proyecto de cogeneración más antiguo data de 1930 y operó hasta el año 1997. Sin embargo, pese a que la tecnología lleva introducida largo tiempo, pocos son los estudios que han analizado el potencial de CHP y su evolución. Un primer paso para el estudio del potencial del país es la creación de un catastro que incluya la capacidad instalada. El interés de este ejercicio radica en el potencial de integración de mayores cantidades de CHP en el sistema eléctrico con el objetivo de hacer frente a la intermitencia de fuentes de energía no convencionales. Además, las plantas CHP pueden ayudar a alcanzar los objetivos de eficiencia energética gracias a la posibilidad de los generadores de volcar a la red tanto la electricidad como calor no consumido en los procesos productivos. Sin embargo, para que esto ocurra es necesario el desarrollo de un marco regulatorio acorde a las capacidades y características de las plantas de CHP. El objetivo de este artículo es precisamente identificar las características de las instalaciones en industrias específicas, así como su evolución, con el objetivo de extrapolar los datos al resto de la economía y obtener un potencial de CHP para el país. Para ello, se han hecho consultas de catastros anteriores, así como entrevistas con empresas para conocer el estado actual del parque de plantas de CHP en el país. Palabras clave: cogeneración, eficiencia energética, flexibilidad del sistema eléctrico 1.

    DigitalAngewandte WirtschaftswissenschaftenTC Grafenau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Ali Fallah Tehrani, M. Aggarwal

    Modelling Human Decision Behaviour with Preference Learning

    INFORMS Journal on Computing, vol. 31, no. 2

    2019

    DOI: 10.1287/ijoc.2018.0823

    Abstract anzeigen

    Preferences provide a means for specifying the desires of a decision maker (DM) in a declarative way. In this paper, based on a DM’s pairwise preferences, we infer the DM’s unique decision model. We capture (a) the attitudinal character, (b) relative criteria importance, and (c) the criteria interaction, all of which are specific to the DM. We make use of the preference-learning (PL) technique to induce predictive preference models from empirical data. Because PL is emerging as a new subfield of machine learning, we could use standard machine-learning methods to accomplish our learning objective. We consider the DM’s exemplary preference information in the form of pairwise comparisons between alternatives as the training information. The DM’s decision model is captured in terms of (a), (b), and (c), through the parameters of an attitudinal Choquet integral operator. The proposed learning approach is validated through an experimental study on 16 standard data sets. The superiority of the proposed method in terms of predictive accuracy and easier interpretability is shown both theoretically as well as empirically.

    IQW

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Andreas Gegenfurtner, M. Gebhardt, G. Casale, J.-T. Kuhn, J. DeVries, J. Jungjohann

    Measurement invariance of a direct behavior rating multi-item scale

    Social Sciences, vol. 8, no. 46, pp. 1-23

    2019

    DOI: 10.3390/socsci8020046

    Abstract anzeigen

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been evaluated mostly in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for standardized use in the pedagogical field, a larger and broader sample is required in order to assess measurement invariance between different participant groups and over time. Therefore, we constructed a DBR with multiple items to measure the occurrence of specific externalizing and internalizing student classroom behaviors on a Likert scale (1 = never to 7 = always). In a pilot study, two trained raters observed 16 primary school students and rated the student behavior over all items with a satisfactory reliability. In the main study, 108 regular primary school students, 97 regular secondary school students and 14 students in a clinical setting were rated daily over one week (five measurement points). IRT analyses confirmed the instrument’s technical adequacy, and latent growth models demonstrated the instrument’s stability over time. Further development of the instrument and study designs to implement DBRs are discussed.

    DigitalIQW

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Andreas Gegenfurtner, D. Dagnone, J.J.G. van Merriënboer, McGraw, Nick C J, A. Hall, D. Howes, A. Szulewski, G. Dashi, R. Egan

    A new way to look at simulation-based assessment: the relationship between gaze-tracking and exam performance

    Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM), vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 129-137

    2019

    DOI: 10.1017/cem.2018.391

    Abstract anzeigen

    CLINICIAN'S CAPSULEWhat is known about this topic?Gathering visual information effectively is an important task of a physician leader when managing a resuscitation case.What did this study ask?Are there particular visual information-gathering patterns associated with performance in simulated resuscitation scenarios?What did this study find?Certain visual patterns (e.g., focusing on case-specific clinically relevant stimuli) are associated with better performance in a simulated resuscitation setting.Why does this study matter to clinicians?The ability to characterize physician visual patterns across a competence continuum has implications for trainee assessment and medical education.

    IQW

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Andreas Gegenfurtner, R. van Geel, L. Testers, S. Brand-Gruwel

    From monocontextual to multicontextual transfer: Organizational determinants of the intention to transfer generic information literacy competences to multiple contexts

    Frontline Learning Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 23-42

    2019

    DOI: 10.14786/flr.v7i1.359

    Abstract anzeigen

    An important goal of educational designers is to achieve long-term transfer of learning that is the learner's application of newly acquired competencies. Extensive research during more than a century shows that especially in formal educational settings this fundamental aspect of education often occurs poorly or not at all, leading to what is called a Transfer Problem. To address this transfer problem, the present study examines intentions to transfer learning to multiple contexts; this focus on multiple transfer contexts extends previous research focusing on a single transfer context, typically the workplace. The present study aimed to estimate the influence of five organizational variables (peer support, supervisor support, opportunity to use, openness to change, and feedback) on transfer intention in two different transfer contexts: study and work. Participants were 303 students at an open university attending a course in information literacy. The model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that before starting the course supervisor support and feedback were considered the strongest predictors of intention to transfer new learning in both the study and the work contexts. This research is amongst the first in the training literature to address multi-contextuality and examines intentions to transfer generic competences to the two transfer contexts study and work within one single study.