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    DigitalAngewandte GesundheitswissenschaftenInstitut für Existenzgründung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Thomas Bartscher

    Was macht der digitale Wandel mit Menschen und Unternehmen?

    Magazin hoch³, no. 4 (Juli), pp. 12-15

    2020

    NachhaltigTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Roland Zink, Javier Valdés, Jane Wuth

    Prioritizing the Chicken or Egg? Electric Vehicle Purchase and Charging Infrastructure Subsidies in Germany

    Politics and Governance, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 185-198

    2020

    DOI: 10.17645/pag.v8i3.3025

    Abstract anzeigen

    To meet current targets for greenhouse gas emissions in Europe, emissions, especially those originating from the road transport sector, need to be reduced. Plans are to achieve this goal by substituting fossil fuel vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs). This article first discusses conceptually the impact of an increasing share of EVs on the electricity grid and suitable locations for charging stations with examples from a Case Study in Lower Bavaria. Secondly, the impact of purchase subsidies on EV purchases in Germany, a high-income country characterized by an important automotive industry and an increasing share of private vehicles is examined. To achieve this, yearly information on EV purchases were analyzed by applying the Synthetic Control Method. Combining data from different sources including the European Alternative Fuels Observatory, Eurostat, and the European Automobile Manufacturers' Association, an overall picture was developed. Results indicate a difference between private, semi-public, and public charging infrastructures. Its spatial distribution does not correspond to a specific development strategy. Moreover, EV subsidies have a limited effect in Germany when controlling for market size. Limiting the discussion to a trade-off between subsidizing infrastructures or EV purchases obviates the multidimensionality of the problem as neither of them may be sufficient to accelerate the transition per se. Furthermore, if electricity provided for EVs comes mainly from fossil carriers, the changes in the road transport sector will not yield the expected emission reductions. The transition towards renewables is directly intertwined with the effects of EVs on emission reductions in the road transport sector.

    DigitalAngewandte InformatikInstitut ProtectIT

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Amar Almaini, A. Al Dubai, I. Romdhani, Martin Schramm, A. Alsarhan

    Lightweight edge authentication for software defined networks

    Computing (Special Issue), no. 8 August 2020

    2020

    DOI: 10.1007/s00607-020-00835-4

    Abstract anzeigen

    OpenFlow is considered as the most known protocol for Software Defined Networking (SDN). The main drawback of OpenFlow is the lack of support of new header definitions, which is required by network operators to apply new packet encapsulations. While SDN’s logically centralized control plane could enhance network security by providing global visibility of the network state, it still has many side effects. The intelligent controllers that orchestrate the dumb switches are overloaded and become prone to failure. Delegating some level of control logic to the edge or, to be precise, the switches can offload the controllers from local state based decisions that do not require global network wide knowledge. Thus, this paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to propose the delegation of typical security functions from specialized middleboxes to the data plane. We leverage the opportunities offered by programming protocol-independent packet processors (P4) language to present two authentication techniques to assure that only legitimate nodes are able to access the network. The first technique is the port knocking and the second technique is the One-Time Password. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed techniques improve the network overall availability by offloading the controller as well as reducing the traffic in the network without noticeable negative impact on switches’ performance.

    DigitalNachhaltigTC Grafenau

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    S. Goisser, S. Wittmann, Michael Fernandes, H. Mempel, C. Ulrichs

    Comparison of colorimeter and different portable food-scanners for non-destructive prediction of lycopene content in tomato fruit

    Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 167, no. September

    2020

    DOI: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2020.111232

    Abstract anzeigen

    Lycopene, the red colored carotenoid in tomatoes, has various health benefits for humans due to its capability of scavenging free radicals. Traditionally, the quantification of lycopene requires an elaborate extraction process combined with HPLC analysis within the laboratory. Recent studies focused simpler methods for determining lycopene and utilized spectroscopic measurement methods. The aim of this study was to compare non-destructive methods for the prediction of lycopene by using color values from colorimeter measurements and Vis/NIR spectra recorded with three commercially available and portable Vis/NIR spectrometers, so called food-scanners. Tomatoes of five different ripening stages (green to red) as well as tomatoes stored up to 22 days after harvest were used for modeling. After measurement of color values and collection of Vis/NIR spectra the corresponding lycopene content was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Applying exponential regression models yielded very good prediction of lycopene for color values L*, a*, a*/b* and the tomato color index of 0.94, 0.90, 0.90 and 0.91, respectively. Color value b* was not a suitable predictor for lycopene content, whereas the (a*/b*)² value had the best linear fit of 0.87. In comparison to color measurements, the cross-validated prediction models developed for all three food-scanners had coefficients of determination (r²CV) ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. Food-scanners also can be used for additional measurements of internal fruit quality, and therefore have great potential for fruit quality assessment by measuring a multitude of important fruit traits in one single scan.

    Angewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Marcus Dittrich, S. Städter

    Regulating executive pay: Incentive contracts and non-binding bonus caps

    Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, vol. [To be published]

    2020

    NachhaltigTC Weißenburg

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Wang, J., Dmitry Rychkov, Q. Nguyen, Gerhard, R.

    The influence of orthophosphoric-acid surface modification on charge-storage enhancement in polypropylene electrets

    Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 128, no. 3

    2020

    DOI: 10.1063/5.0013805

    Abstract anzeigen

    Bipolar electrets from polypropylene (PP) are essential, e.g., in electret air filters and in cellular-foam ferroelectrets. Therefore, the mechanism of surface-charge stability enhancement on PP electrets via orthophosphoric-acid surface treatment is investigated in detail. It is shown that the significant charge-stability enhancement can be mainly attributed to deeper surface traps originating from deposited chemicals and topographic features on the modified surfaces. Thermally stimulated discharge of chemically treated and non-treated PP films with different surface-charge densities is used to test the limits of the newly formed deep traps in terms of the capacity for hosting surface charges. When the initial surface-charge density is very high, more charges are forced into shallower original traps on the surface or in the bulk of the treated PP samples, reducing the effect of the deeper surface traps brought by the surface modification. The well-known crossover phenomenon (of the surface-charge decay curves) has been observed between modified PP electrets charged to ±2 kV and to ±3  kV. Acoustically probed charge distributions in the thickness direction of PP electrets at different stages of thermal discharging indicate that the deep surface trapping sites may have preference for negative charges, resulting in the observed asymmetric charge stability of the modified PP films.

    GesundAngewandte GesundheitswissenschaftenInstitut Betriebliches Gesundheitsmanagement u. Arbeitssicherheit

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Stephan Gronwald, Jasmin Weber

    Betriebliches Gesundheitsmanagement in der Pflegeausbildung. Eine Chance für nachhaltige Veränderungen in Pflegeeinrichtungen

    PADUA - Die Fachzeitschrift für Pflegepädagogik, Patientenedukation und -bildung, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 38-42

    2020

    DOI: 10.1024/1861-6186/a000533

    Abstract anzeigen

    Die Arbeitsbedingungen in der Pflege frühzeitig in die richtigen Wege zu leiten, beginnt bereits bei der Ausbildung des Pflegefachpersonals. Sowohl Lehrende als auch Auszubildende brauchen grundlegende Kenntnisse, wie sie die Arbeit mitgestalten können. Die Erweiterung des Curriculums um die Kompetenzen eines systemischen Prozessberaters für betriebliches Gesundheitsmanagement bringt dabei für beide Seiten Vorteile.

    DigitalNachhaltigFraunhofer AWZ CTMTMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Gabriel Herl, Jochen Hiller, A. Maier

    Scanning trajectory optimisation using a quantitative Tuybased local quality estimation for robot-based X-ray computed tomography

    Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, vol. (Published 21 June 2020), no. 6

    2020

    DOI: 10.1080/10589759.2020.1774579

    Abstract anzeigen

    Robotic CT systems allow complex scanning trajectories. This work presents a workflow to automatically calculate optimised scanning trajectories for robotic CT systems. In particular, as a local quality estimation, this work introduces a quantitative measure to quantify local reconstruction quality based on the Tuy conditions. The proposed method is tested in two summation experiments using an STL model of a motorcycle. In both experiments, a trajectory is calculated using a quantitative Tuy-based local quality estimation and the reconstruction result is then compared to reconstructions using conventional scanning trajectories. The comparison results indicate that the proposed approach automatically finds trajectories that enable 3D reconstructions with high image quality using much less projection data, which allows a significant reduction of scanning time.

    DigitalNachhaltigFraunhofer AWZ CTMTMaschinenbau und Mechatronik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Stock, Gabriel Herl, T. Sauer, Jochen Hiller

    Edge-preserving compression of CT scans using wavelets

    Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring (The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing), vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 345-351

    2020

    DOI: 10.1784/insi.2020.62.6.345

    Abstract anzeigen

    This work addresses the subject of efficient storage of computed tomography (CT) data with an emphasis on the quality of surfaces. Industrial dimensional metrology often requires high measurement accuracy and it is shown that this is retained using wavelet-based compression methods. The applied techniques include a tensor product wavelet transform and soft wavelet shrinkage. In these tests, performed on real objects, dimensional CT measurements of compressed and uncompressed volumes were compared. The necessary storage space was reduced significantly with a negligible loss of accuracy. The storage space required for a multi-sphere phantom was decreased to 4.7% (from 638 MB to 30 MB), with an average deviation below 1 μm from the original volume.

    DigitalNachhaltigExtern

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Anton Schmailzl, Johannes Käsbauer, J. Martan, P. Honnerová, F. Schäfer, Maximilian Fichtl, T. Lehrer, L. Prušáková, J. Tesař, J. Skála, M. Honner

    Measurement of core temperature through semi-transparent polyamide 6 using scanner-integrated pyrometer in laser welding

    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 146, no. January

    2020

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118814

    Abstract anzeigen

    Predicting the core temperature during welding is an ambitious aim in many research works. In this work, a 3D-scanner with integrated pyrometer is characterized and used to measure the temperature during quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding of polyamide 6. However, due to welding in an overlap configuration, the heat radiation emitted from the joining zone of a laser transmission weld has to pass through the upper polymer, which is itself a semi-transparent emitter. Therefore, the spectral filtering of the heat radiation in the upper polymer is taken into account by calibrating the pyrometer for the measurement task. Thermal process simulations are performed to compare the temperature field with the measured temperature signal. The absorption coefficients of the polymers are measured, in order to get precise results from the computation. The temperature signals during welding are in good agreement with the computed mean temperature inside the detection spot, located in the joining area. This is also true for varying laser power, laser beam diameter and the carbon black content in the lower polymer. Both, the computed mean temperature and the temperature signal are representing the core temperature. In order to evaluate the spatial sensitivity of the measurement system, the emitted heat radiation from both polymers is calculated on basis of the computed temperature field. Hereby it is found, that more than 90 percent of the detected heat radiation comes from the joining area, which is a crucial information for contact-free temperature measurement tasks on semi-transparent polymers.

    DigitalNachhaltigExtern

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Johannes Käsbauer, Anton Schmailzl, J. Prehm, T. Loose, S. Hierl

    Simulation of Quasi-Simultaneous Laser Transmission Welding of Plastics: Optimization of Material Parameters in Broad Temperature Range

    [Accepted for publication]

    Procedia CIRP

    2020

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Armin Reif, P. Rinck, Sebastian Sitzberger, Rolf Rascher, M. Zäh

    Zerspanung von Hochleistungswerkstoffen mit ultrasonisch modulierter Schnittgeschwindigkeit

    ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 2-5

    2020

    DOI: 10.3139/104.112255

    Abstract anzeigen

    Die steigenden Anforderungen an die Festigkeit und die Qualität von Bauteilen und die damit verbundene Verwendung hochfester Materialien erfordert die Weiterentwicklung neuer wirtschaftlicher Zerspanungstechniken. Durch eine werkzeugseitige Schwingungsüberlagerung können bei der Bearbeitung von schwer zerspanbaren Werkstoffen die Zerspankräfte und der Werkzeugverschleiß reduziert sowie die Oberflächenqualität verbessert werden.

    NachhaltigElektrotechnik und MedientechnikIQMA

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    H. Fan, Y. Zhang, D. Liu, C. Niu, L. Liu, W. Ni, Y. Xia, Z. Bi, Günther Benstetter, G. Lei

    Tensile stress-driven cracking of W fuzz over W crystal under fusion-relevant He ion irradiations

    Nuclear Fusion, vol. 60, no. 4

    2020

    DOI: 10.1088/1741-4326/ab71bb

    Abstract anzeigen

    Although W fuzz is formed in the divertor region of the fusion reactor, no theory may clearly explain the W fuzz growth mechanism. In this study, we observe the growth process of W fuzz over W crystal under ITER-relevant He ion irradiations. We propose the tensile stress-driven cracking of nano-structured fuzz during the initial growth of W fuzz. We demonstrate that the existence of tensile stress is due to the swelling of He nano-bubbles in the fuzz. After this cracking, the W fuzz breaks away from the planar network and grows over the W surface, where the micro-stress in the W surface layer acts as the driving force.

    Elektrotechnik und Medientechnik

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    H. Heckelmüller, F. Kendl, Gerhard Krump

    TDR Einzahlwert zur Charakterisierung der dynamischen Oberbausteifigkeit

    ZEVrail - Zeitschrift für das gesamte System Bahn, vol. 144, no. Mai, pp. 190-194

    2020

    Abstract anzeigen

    Der Schallmesswagen (SMW) der DB Systemtechnik prüft den akustischen Zustand des Oberbaus und wird vor allem zur Überprüfung von Streckenabschnitten mit der Maßnahme „Besonders überwachtes Gleis“ (BüG) verwendet. Zusätzlich wird der SMW zur Qualitätskontrolle und Abnahme des akustischen Schienenschleifens eingesetzt. Falls ein BüG-Abschnitt nicht vom SMW befahren werden kann, gilt seit 2001 die Ersatzmaßnahme RMF-BüG. Dieses Verfahren soll die Messaufgaben des SMW durch kontinuierliche Rauheitsmessungen beider Schienen ersatzweise übernehmen können. Beim RMF-BüG-Verfahren wurde zur Berechnung des SMW-Pegels ausschließlich die Schienenrauheit berücksichtigt. Anhand einer Vielzahl von Messungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass das Rollgeräusch des SMW signifikant ebenfalls von der Gleisabklingrate (Track Decay Rate TDR) abhängig ist. Das vorgestellte Verfahren zeigt die Verwendung des Einzahlwertes der Schienenrauheit LλCA und des Einzahlwertes der TDR L TDR zur Bestimmung des SMW-Pegels.

    GesundEuropan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    T. Talanow, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, J. Lippold, B. Weber, U. Ettinger

    Neural Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Inhibition of Saccadic Eye Movements

    Brain Imaging and Behavior, vol. 14, pp. 72-88

    2020

    DOI: 10.1007/s11682-018-9972-3

    Abstract anzeigen

    Although research on goal-directed, proactive inhibitory control (IC) and stimulus-driven, reactive IC is growing, no previous study has compared proactive IC in conditions of uncertainty with regard to upcoming inhibition to conditions of certain upcoming IC. Therefore, we investigated effects of certainty and uncertainty on behavior and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in proactive and reactive IC. In two studies, healthy adults performed saccadic go/no-go and prosaccade/antisaccade tasks. The certainty manipulation had a highly significant behavioral effect in both studies, with inhibitory control being more successful under certain than uncertain conditions on both tasks (p ≤ 0.001). Saccadic go responses were significantly less efficient under conditions of uncertainty than certain responding (p < 0.001). Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (one study) revealed a dissociation of certainty- and uncertainty-related proactive inhibitory neural correlates in the go/no-go task, with lateral and medial prefrontal and occipital cortex showing stronger deactivations during uncertainty than during certain upcoming inhibition, and lateral parietal cortex being activated more strongly during certain upcoming inhibition than uncertainty or certain upcoming responding. In the antisaccade task, proactive BOLD effects arose due to stronger deactivations in uncertain response conditions of both tasks and before certain prosaccades than antisaccades. Reactive inhibition-related BOLD increases occurred in inferior parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) in the go/no-go task only. Proactive IC may imply focusing attention on the external environment for encoding salient or alerting events as well as inhibitory mechanisms that reduce potentially distracting neural processes. SMG and inferior parietal cortex may play an important role in both proactive and reactive IC of saccades.

    Angewandte Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Marcus Dittrich, S. Städter

    Monitoring 'lemons': Why lower productivity workers are sometimes monitored more closely

    Applied Economics Letters, no. Published: 18 June 2020

    2020

    DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2020.1776826

    Abstract anzeigen

    We analyse workplace monitoring in a principal–agent model with two types of workers who differ in their productivity. The firm decides on the effort level, the wage and the monitoring intensity for both workers. We find that the elasticities of the workers’ effort-cost function and the firm’s monitoring-cost function affect the firm’s monitoring intensity. Our results imply that the firm might monitor the low-productive worker more closely than the high-productive worker.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Thomas Stirner, David Scholz, J. Sun

    Convergence of surface energy calculations for various methods: (001), (012), (100) hematite and the applicability of the standard approach

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 32, no. 18

    2020

    DOI: 10.1088/1361-648X/ab6f88

    Abstract anzeigen

    Three different methods for the calculation of the surface energy, namely the standard approach, the Boettger relation and the linear-fit method, are applied to the (0 0 1), (0 1 2) and (1 0 0) hematite surfaces. The standard approach was previously shown to suffer from a divergence problem, and the Boettger relation was shown to exhibit quantum size effects. While the linear-fit method, in general, leads to a good convergence behavior of the surface energy, the questions arise whether the relative order of the calculated surface energies depends on the chosen calculation method, and whether there is any merit at all in employing the standard approach. The present work investigates these questions with hematite as a benchmark material system. The simulations show that, for the surface facets and slab thicknesses studied here, the relative order of the surface energies is unaffected by the chosen calculation method. A regime is found where the three methods are in reasonably good agreement with respect to the obtained surface energies. Finally, a procedure is put forward to extract meaningful surface energy values from the standard approach.

    GesundAngewandte Gesundheitswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Stephanie Hecht

    Bewegungsbezogene Gesundheitskompetenz (bGK). Die Vermittlung von bGK in der Lehre für eine qualitativ hochwertige Klientenversorgung

    PADUA - Die Fachzeitschrift für Pflegepädagogik, Patientenedukation und -bildung, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-7

    2020

    DOI: 10.1024/1861-6186/a000529

    Abstract anzeigen

    Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität birgt enorme gesundheitsförderliche Wirkungen. Ein Großteil der Bevölkerung erreicht jedoch die Mindestempfehlungen für Bewegung nicht. Das Konstrukt Bewegungsbezogene Gesundheitskompetenz adaptiert Ressourcen und Barrieren, um körperliche Aktivität bestmöglich zu initiieren und zu verstetigen. Die Umsetzung verlangt hoch kompetente Gesundheitsexperten, die unterschiedliche Handlungsansätze für die Bedarfe einer Zielgruppe bzw. eines Menschen entwickeln.

    GesundAngewandte Gesundheitswissenschaften

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Bernhard Bleyer

    Casuistry: On a Method of Ethical Judgement in Patient Care

    HealthCare Ethics Committee (HEC) Forum, no. Published 09 March 2020, pp. 1-16

    2020

    DOI: 10.1007/s10730-020-09396-7

    Abstract anzeigen

    The article is dedicated to the application questions of a case study method known as casuistry. In its long tradition, it focuses on an influential variant of the early modern period and reconstructs its functionality. In the course of reading recent receptions, it is noted that some studies speak of a “casuistic revival” in moral case deliberation in health care. As a result of this revival, casuistry has been modified in such a way that it guides case discussions in practice with the help of a tripartite methodology (morphology, taxonomy, and kinetics). However, as it turns out, casuistry, a case comparison method of ethical judgement based on reasoning logic, is less suitable for moral case deliberations in direct patient care. This stems from the fact that casuistry is a detailed procedure of ethical learning beneficial to institutionalized ethics committees or similar forms of ethics consultation in health care.

    DigitalAngewandte InformatikTC Freyung

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    J. Trager, L. Kalová, Raphaela Pagany, Wolfgang Dorner

    Warning apps for road safety – a technological and economical perspective for autonomous driving

    [Article submitted]

    International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction

    2020