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Suche nach „[E.] [Faiola]“ hat 3 Publikationen gefunden
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    GesundF: Europan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    E. Faiola, I. Meyhöfer, M. Steffens, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, V. Kumari, U. Ettinger

    Combining Trait and State Model Systems of Psychosis: The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Functions in Schizotypal Individuals

    Psychiatry Research, vol. 270, no. December, pp. 639-648

    2018

    DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.10.033

    Abstract anzeigen

    Model systems of psychosis play an important role in pathophysiology and drug development research. Schizotypal individuals display similar cognitive impairments as schizophrenia patients in several domains. Therefore, schizotypy may be interpreted as a trait model system of psychosis. In addition, experimentally controlled sleep deprivation is a putative state psychosis model that evokes subclinical psychosis-like states. We aimed to further validate these model systems by examining them in relation to central cognitive biomarkers of schizophrenia. Most of all, we were interested in investigating, for the first time, effects of their combination on cognitive function. Healthy subjects with high (N = 17) or low (N = 19) levels of schizotypy performed a cognitive task battery after one night of normal sleep and after 24 h of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation impaired performance in the go/nogo and n-back tasks relative to the normal sleep control condition. No differences between groups or interactions of group with sleep condition were found. The role of sleep deprivation as a model of psychosis is thus supported to some extent by impairments in inhibitory control. However, classical measures of cognition may be less able to detect deficits in schizotypy, in line with evidence of more basic information processing dysfunctions in schizotypy.

    GesundF: Europan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    I. Meyhöfer, M. Steffens, E. Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, V. Kumari, U. Ettinger

    Combining two model systems of psychosis: The effects of schizotypy and sleep deprivation on oculomotor control and psychotomimetic states

    Psychophysiology, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1755-1769

    2017

    DOI: 10.1111/psyp.12917

    Abstract anzeigen

    Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep‐deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress. To do so, n  = 19 controls and n  = 17 high positive schizotypes were examined after both a normal sleep night and 24 h of sleep deprivation. Schizotypes displayed higher SPEM global position error, catch‐up saccade amplitude, and increased psychotomimetic states. Sleep deprivation impaired SPEM, prosaccade, antisaccade, and predictive saccade performance and increased levels of psychotomimetic experiences. Additionally, sleep deprivation reduced SPEM gain in schizotypes but not controls. We conclude that oculomotor impairments are observed in relation to schizotypy and following sleep deprivation, supporting their utility as biomarkers in model systems of psychosis. The combination of these models with oculomotor biomarkers may be particularly fruitful in assisting the development of new antipsychotic or pro‐cognitive drugs.

    GesundF: Europan Campus Rottal-Inn

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    U. Ettinger, E. Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, N. Petrovsky, Chan, R. C. K., R. Liepelt, V. Kumari

    Effects of nicotine on response inhibition and interference control

    Psychopharmacology, vol. 234, pp. 1093-1111

    2017

    DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4542-8

    Abstract anzeigen

    Nicotine is a cholinergic agonist with known pro-cognitive effects in the domains of alerting and orienting attention. However, its effects on attentional top-down functions such as response inhibition and interference control are less well characterised. Here, we investigated the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine on performance on a battery of response inhibition and interference control tasks. A sample of N = 44 healthy adult non-smokers performed antisaccade, stop signal, Stroop, go/no-go, flanker, shape matching and Simon tasks, as well as the attentional network test (ANT) and a continuous performance task (CPT). Nicotine was administered in a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, with order of drug administration counterbalanced. Relative to placebo, nicotine led to significantly shorter reaction times on a prosaccade task and on CPT hits but did not significantly improve inhibitory or interference control performance on any task. Instead, nicotine had a negative influence in increasing the interference effect on the Simon task. Nicotine did not alter inter-individual associations between reaction times on congruent trials and error rates on incongruent trials on any task. Finally, there were effects involving order of drug administration, suggesting practice effects but also beneficial nicotine effects when the compound was administered first. Overall, our findings support previous studies showing positive effects of nicotine on basic attentional functions but do not provide direct evidence for an improvement of top-down cognitive control through acute administration of nicotine at this dose in healthy non-smokers.