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    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    A. Hamid, J. Sun, H. Zhang, Thomas Stirner

    Molecular dynamics simulation analysis of helium cluster growth conditions under tungsten surfaces

    Computational Materials Science, vol. 186, no. January

    2021

    DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109994

    Abstract anzeigen

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the effects of helium fluxes on helium cluster size underneath tungsten surfaces under bombardment of helium atoms with incident energy 30 100 eV at temperature 300 2100 K. The simulation results show that the helium cluster size depends on the magnitude of the helium flux: at a higher flux, the helium clusters on average form in smaller size in tungsten but with larger number; while the clusters form further away from the surface at a lower flux. The coalescence of He atoms and helium bubbles depends on the tungsten temperature: at elevated temperatures around 2000 K, the incident He atoms in tungsten slow down more rapidly than at 1000 K but the number of vacancies per He cluster is smaller. The incident energy has a strong effect on the retention of helium atoms: The helium retention rate increases with the incident energy, and the helium retention depends weakly on temperature in the low energy range of interest. It is also found that the surface orientation plays an important role not only in determining the depth distribution but also in determining the helium retention and cluster size: at the surface {1 1 0}, the retention rate of helium atoms is the lowest, and at the surface {1 1 1}, the clusters grow easily in the lateral direction. The present simulation results suggest that the {0 0 1} surface is favorable for fuzz growth. The results obtained in the present work provide insight to the reasons why the fuzz only grows within a certain parameter range at the atomic level.

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    Buch (Monographie)

    Franz Xaver Röhrl

    Ein flexibles Leiterplatten-Technologiekonzept für Anwendungen im Millimeterwellenbereich

    Dissertationsschrift

    Elektrotechnik, München

    2020

    ISBN: 978-3-8439-4537-0

    Abstract anzeigen

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt ein Konzept zum Betrieb von millimeterwellentauglichen Schaltungen auf konventionellen Leiterplatten. Dazu werden neben den technologischen Grundlagen und neuen Leiterplattentechnologien auch konkrete Realisierungen von Schaltungen vorgestellt. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf einer toleranzarmen, fertigungstechnisch prozesssicheren Umsetzung. Die entwickelten Fertigungsverfahren und Optimierungen erlauben die Herstellung von bisher nicht realisierbaren Feinstleiter-Strukturen auf Außenlagen und ermöglichen dadurch auch eine breitbandige dämpfungsarme Signalführung. Ein großer Vorteil der hier vorgestellten Umsetzung ist, dass die Verfahren zum Großteil mit konventionellen Leiterplattenprozessen umgesetzt werden können und auch eine beliebige Kombination mit bestehenden Leiterplattenprozessen zulässig ist. Es wird versucht möglichst viele Funktionen und Herausforderungen direkt auf der kostengünstigen Leiterplatte zu lösen. Das Konzept beinhaltet zudem eine breite Auswahl an Möglichkeiten zur reflexionsarmen Kontaktierung der Leiterplatte von Signalen im Millimeterwellenbereich. Außerdem wird die Anbindung von aktiven Bausteinen und anderen Schaltungsträgern detailliert behandelt. Die Ergebnisse werden sowohl mit dem aktuellen Stand der Leiterplattentechnologie als auch mit alternativen Fertigungstechnologien verglichen und bewertet.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Felix Sepaintner, Andreas Scharl, Franz Xaver Röhrl, Werner Bogner, Stefan Zorn

    Characterization and Production of PCB Structures With Increased Ratio of Electromagnetic Field in Air

    IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 2134-2143

    2020

    DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2020.2983934

    Abstract anzeigen

    Producing passive printed circuit board (PCB) structures in the millimeter-wave range includes some fundamental challenges, such as low manufacturing costs and high fabrication accuracy. These aspects, in general, have to be combined with low signal attenuation, precise simulation models, and a reliable producibility. This article shows a new method to manufacture different kinds of passive RF waveguides with reduced attenuation and decreased electrical length on low-cost PCB substrates. First, the complex material parameters of the used substrate and the used copper foil are extracted from 10 to 100 GHz to have accurate simulation models in CST Microwave Studio. This is necessary because the parameters provided by the manufacturer are often no longer generally valid in this frequency range. In addition, PCB materials have a significantly higher surface roughness compared with conventional materials for millimeter-wave applications. Therefore, the correct determination and the correct modeling of surface roughness is particularly important. Next, laminate is removed partially on the outer layer of the PCB to increase the electromagnetic field ratio in air. The undesired substrate is removed by a CO2 laser drilling machine by setting narrow drills sequentially. The RF performance of these waveguides is compared with those manufactured in conventional PCB technology according to attenuation and producibility.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    E. Hassan, B. Scheiner, F. Michler, M. Berggren, E. Wadbro, Franz Xaver Röhrl, Stefan Zorn, R. Weigel, F. Lurz

    Multi-Layer Topology Optimization of Wideband SIW-to-Waveguide Transitions

    IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 1326-1339

    2020

    DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2019.2959759

    Abstract anzeigen

    This article utilizes a topology optimization approach to design planar multilayer transitions between substrate integrated waveguides (SIWs) and rectangular waveguides (RWGs). The optimization problem is formulated based on the modal field analyses and Maxwell's equations in the time domain solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We present a time-domain boundary condition based on the Klein-Gordon equation to split traveling waves at homogeneous waveguide ports. We employ the boundary condition to compute portal quantities and to devise an adjoint-field system that enabled an efficient computation of the objective function gradient. We solve design problems that include more than 105 000 design variables by using less than 400 solutions of Maxwell's equations. Moreover, a new formulation that effectively combats the development of in-band resonances in the design is presented. The transition configuration allows the direct mount of conventional RWG sections on the circuit board and aims to cover the entire K-band. The guiding structure of the optimized transition requires blind vias, which is realized by a simple and cost-efficient technique. In addition, the transition is optimized for three different setups that can be used to provide different field polarizations. The proposed transitions show less than 1-dB insertion loss and around 15-dB return loss over the frequency interval 18-28 GHz. Several prototypes are fabricated with an excellent match between the simulation and measurement results.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Felix Sepaintner, Andreas Scharl, Florian Keck, Kevin Kunze, Franz Xaver Röhrl, Werner Bogner, Stefan Zorn

    Cost-Effective Implementation of Air-Filled Waveguides on Printed Circuit Boards

    [Invited Talk]

    Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging and Systems (EPEPS)

    2020

    DOI: 10.1109/EPEPS48591.2020.9231382

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper presents a new cost-effective method to produce air-filled waveguides out of a printed circuit board (PCB) with a milling machine and how to implement them with standard PCB technology. For this purpose, low cost substrates like FR-4 are used. For the baseboard to waveguide transition in the E-Band (60-90GHz) a WR12 waveguide connector [1] was used. The WR12 waveguide was manufactured and analyzed on mechanical deviations. The RF performance in the E-Band was measured and compared to common PCB waveguides like microstrip lines (MS) and grounded coplanar waveguides (GCPW).

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Felix Sepaintner, Andreas Scharl, Franz Xaver Röhrl, Werner Bogner, Stefan Zorn

    Extracting Complex PCB Substrate Permittivity from a Transmission Line using the Finite Difference Integral Method from 10 GHz - 100 GHz

    [Invited Talk]

    Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Advanced Materials and Processes for RF and THz Applications (IMWS-AMP)

    2020

    DOI: 10.1109/IMWS-AMP49156.2020.9199738

    Abstract anzeigen

    This paper presents a new numerical method to deduce the complex permittivity εr of PCB (printed circuit board) substrates. First, the attenuation and phase of an on board transmission line are measured with a vector network analyzer (VNA). The transmission line is then simulated with the finite difference integral method (FDI) with the substrate substituted by air. The measured and simulated phases are used, to calculate the effective permittivity and the real part of the complex permittivity εr ' . With known εr ' , the electromagnetic field distribution can be calculated, which is necessary to deduce the imaginary part of the permittivity. The shown algorithms can be used for frequencies up to 100 GHz and without any iterative processes.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Andreas Scharl, Felix Sepaintner, Franz Xaver Röhrl, Werner Bogner, Stefan Zorn

    Design and Comparison of Filter Structures in the Millimetre Wave Frequency Range on Outer- and Inner-Layers of Organic Circuits Boards

    [Invited Talk]

    Proceedings of the 2020 European Microwave Conference (EuMC)

    2020

    DigitalAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und WirtschaftsingenieurwesenIPH Teisnach

    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Andreas Scharl, Felix Sepaintner, Franz Xaver Röhrl, Werner Bogner, Stefan Zorn

    Simulation and Measurement of PCB Crossover Structures from DC up to 70 GHz

    [Invited Talk]

    Proceedings of the 2020 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC) [9-11 March 2020; Cottbus]

    2020

    Abstract anzeigen

    In this paper, 4 different crossover structures in a 6-layered printed circuit board (PCB) for high operation frequencies are presented. The design for all structures is based on grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW). Two fully planar structures, a quasi-coaxial transition and coaxial transition are realized and have a measured bandwidth from DC to 50 GHz and DC to 60 GHz, respectively. Moreover, two structures are designed in submount technology. Especially the connection between baseboard and package (solder junction) plays an important role to guarantee best signal integrity. Therefore, the quality of the solder junction is analysed in detail with TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurement as well as with X-ray images. The submount transitions show good radio frequency (RF) characteristics from DC to 70 GHz.

    NachhaltigAngewandte Naturwissenschaften und Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen

    Zeitschriftenartikel

    H. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Wang, Thomas Stirner, A. Hamid, C. Sang

    Study of lattice thermal conductivity of tungsten containing bubbles by molecular dynamics simulation

    Fusion Engineering and Design, vol. 161, no. December

    2020

    DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2020.112004

    Abstract anzeigen

    Exposed to high fluxes of helium/hydrogen isotope particles and heat, tungsten divertor plates will suffer damage thus degrading its performance such as its thermal conductivity. This paper presents a study on the effect of bubbles on the lattice thermal conductivity of tungsten at the atomic level using molecular dynamics simulations. The present study finds that empty bubbles in tungsten lead to a decrease in the lattice thermal conductivity of tungsten. Furthermore, He/D filled bubbles aggravate this decrease. The physical origin of this behavior is discussed. It is also found that the decrease in lattice thermal conductivity depends strongly on both the impurity density in the bubbles and the bubble size.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Simon Killinger, Johannes Liebl, Rolf Rascher

    First steps towards an automated polishing process chain using one robot

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2564840

    Abstract anzeigen

    Manufacturing precision optics is a complex process chain, which requires many operations on different machines. This is combined with operator-dependent steps such as manual cleaning, loading and measuring. In order to realize this process chain on a smaller shop area and to achieve a higher level of automation we build an operator-independent polishing cell. In this cell, an ABB robot serves as the actuator handling the workpiece. We positioned the robot in the center of the polishing cell to operate several workstations, so the whole process chain works with one single actuator. This arrangement allows a smaller and cheaper system, since no additional handling is required.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Michael Benisch, O. Fähnle, Rolf Rascher, Werner Bogner

    Force and pressure analysis during overarm polishing

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2564903

    Abstract anzeigen

    The Preston-equation implies, that, besides the relative speed υrel and a specific constant KP, the pressure p plays a significant role for the removal rate when polishing an optical component. This paper demonstrates a possibility for a qualitative evaluation of the pressure distribution before the polishing process. A pressure-sensitive foil is used as a gauge for pressure measurement. The effectiveness of this measuring method is explained. Specific weaknesses and limitations in the use of these foils are discussed. A method for an integrated evaluation of the pressure on different spots of the polishing pad is proposed at the end of the paper.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    M. Pohl, R. Börret, Olga Kukso, Rolf Rascher

    Mid spatial frequency error prevention strategies for the grinding process

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2565261

    Abstract anzeigen

    This research is focused on the link between manufacturing parameters and the resulting mid-spatial frequency error in the manufacturing process of precision optics. The goal is to understand the generation mechanisms of mid-spatial frequency errors and avoid their appearance in the manufacturing process. Also, a simulation which is able to predict the resulting mid spatial frequency error from a manufacturing process is desired.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Jessica Stelzl, Christine Wünsche, S. Höfer

    Influencing factors for a continuous wave UV-laser component

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2564916

    Abstract anzeigen

    During the development of an optical system, one comes to the point where you have to build the optically active element into a mechanical device that becomes part of the system. At this point you come across the well-known question that it is not only necessary to consider and ensure the quality of the individual element. It is also important to look at the entire component in order to identify potential influencing factors on the performance of the optical system. At the beginning of a two-year project at Technologiecampus Teisnach the polishing process of a nonlinear crystal as the crucial component of the optical system was being explored. This system is designed to create continuous wave laser beams in the deep UV range. The crystal has to be embedded between two prisms. Roughness and shape of the crystal is ensured via the polishing process which alone has many influencing factors and was examined at the beginning of the project. The quality of the crystal can be as good as it can be, but if the contacting prisms do not fit, the whole prism-coupled device will become unusable in the overall optical laser system. The performance of the laser can only be achieved by harmonizing all elements of the PCD and the PCD itself into the laser set-up. In the current phase of the project this question will be dealt with. The prism-coupled device is split up into its individual parts, which are the nonlinear crystal, the prisms as optical auxiliary components, micro screws and mechanical support. Going through the requirements to the properties of the crystal and their limitations, the influence of the PCD on the optical performance of the crystal is presented. Here, the main focus is placed on the mode of fixing the crystal between the prisms and on putting the stack of crystal and prisms in the laser beam. The influencing factors between the crystal, the prisms and the method of fixing the PCD are described.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Michael Wagner, Gerald Fütterer

    Computer-aided beam path generation and assessment for Stevick-Paul telescopes

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2564852

    Abstract anzeigen

    At Deggendorf Institute of Technology a student project is currently under way to build a Stevick-Paul telescope for astrophotography. An important step in the overall development procedure of each telescope is the design of a beam-path and ensuring its suitability under optical and engineering aspects. The students performed this process in a sequential manner by using several different computer programs (e.g. MATLAB, Zemax, Creo Parametric). To accelerate the beam path design process, a Python program to automate the major part of the design process with minimum human supervision was created. The input data of the python program consists of ranges of the desired characteristics of the Stevick-Paul telescope, such as focal lengths, primary mirror diameters and tilts etc., mirror thickness and mount geometries, as well as the specific type of camera. After setting the input, the program creates 2D cross-sections of beam paths according to the formulas of D. Stevick and may introduce a flat fold mirror to reduce the overall system size as well as improve the accessibility of the focus plane. The subsequent assessment routine checks against the susceptibility for stray light and performs a complex analysis of the available installation space to ensure sufficient mechanical tolerances. In this way, collisions between mirrors, mounts and cameras are avoided and obstructions of the beam path are prevented. At any stage, the program can produce graphical representations of the beam paths. In this paper the computer-aided design of a telescope beam path with a focal length of 2400 mm is demonstrated. During development of the software, a subset of folded Stevick-Paul telescopes, in which certain components are parallel, was found. This subset may be useful to simplify the alignment procedure. In conclusion, further refinement of the software is necessary, although the program is already a useful aid for certain aspects when creating a beam path design.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Olga Kukso, Rolf Rascher, M. Pohl, R. Börret

    On the metrology and analysis of MSF error

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2566251

    Abstract anzeigen

    The aim of our research was to study middle spatial frequency errors (MSFE) on optical surfaces. We investigate the surfaces after manufacturing processes to find out the main affecting factors and to choose the proper processing parameters to minimize the size of the errors. To find an appropriate parameter window we have to be able not only to define the factors, which lead to MSFE, but also to analyze the change of the error after next following production steps.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    M. Jung, Christian J. Trum, Beate Schmidbauer, E. Willenborg, Rolf Rascher

    Non-ablative removal of sub surface damages in ground optical glass substrates by controlled melting of thin surface layers using CO2-laser radiation

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2564801

    Abstract anzeigen

    The form generation of optical surfaces by grinding and mechanical polishing results in small sub surface damages in the form of micro cracks that conventionally have to be removed by further removal of the damaged surface layers. In order to reduce process time and material cost non-ablative methods for removal of micro cracks are desired. Utilising the low optical penetration depths of less than 10 μm for CO2-laser radiation in glass, the laser energy can be used to heat up and melt thin surface layers. Using a 1.5 kW CO2-laser, a quasi-line focus formed by a scanner unit and a constant feed speed, it is possible to close all micro cracks present in the rough grinded test surfaces (max. SSD-depth ~ 63 μm), while achieving a process time of less than 2 seconds for a Ø 30 mm N-BK7 lens, respectively 7.5 seconds for fused silica. With a Sa as low as 50 nm and low distortion from the original shape the surfaces can directly be conventionally polished, further reducing the process chain complexity.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Sebastian Sitzberger, Johannes Liebl, Christian J. Trum, Rolf Rascher

    Concept of a two-part clamping system for lenses in optical metrology

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2566547

    Abstract anzeigen

    The developed concept represents a universally applicable clamping system designed to fit in any measuring machine with any measuring principle. The design ensures that, as long as the lens remains clamped, the measurement results are reproducible. Form errors due to tension remain constant across all measuring and processing steps. The version presented in this paper was developed especially for small lenses in the diameter range up to 40 mm. On the one hand, the design allows for fast measurement of loose lenses. On the other hand, the device can also be used for measurement comparisons, since lenses can also be mounted permanently. In the following, the concept and first results of measurement tests are presented.

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    Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)

    Armin Reif, Sebastian Sitzberger, Rolf Rascher

    Cutting high-performance materials with ultrasonically modulated cutting speed

    Proceedings of SPIE 11478 (Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing [8 July 2020; Teisnach]), Bellingham, WA, USA

    2020

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2565757

    Abstract anzeigen

    The continuing trend towards lightweight construction and the associated machining rates of up to 95 % lead to an increased use of high-performance materials. The ever growing demands on the strength and quality of components and the associated use of materials which are hard to machine require the further development of new, economical machining techniques. In ultrasonic-assisted machining, an additional high-frequency vibration is superimposed on the conventional machining process. The vibration of the tool is usually excited axially or longitudinally to the workpiece, i.e. vertical to the cutting direction. An additional vibration overlay around the rotation axis (torsional) of the tool is also possible. This generates a vibration overlay in the cutting direction. The vibration initiation causes vibration amplitudes in the range of a few micrometers at the tool cutting edge. This leads in turn to a high-frequency change in the cutting speed or feed rate. Overall, an additional torsional vibration overlap can further reduce cutting forces, increase tool life and improve workpiece quality. In order for a grinding tool to generate a torsional vibration, a special tool was required that had to be designed by simulation. The formation of a torsional vibration was achieved by helical slots in the sonotrode. Depending on the angle of rotation and the length of the slots, a part of the axial vibration is converted into a torsional vibration by an axial excitation of the sonotrode. The aim in designing the slots was to achieve the highest possible vibration amplitude. Following the simulation, the slots were inserted into the tool in the corresponding optimum geometric position. Afterwards, the specially designed grinding tool was validated by machining the brittle-hard glass-ceramic material Zerodur. The first test results with the torsionally vibrating tool are presented in the following.

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    Zeitschriftenartikel

    Armin Reif, P. Rinck, Sebastian Sitzberger, Rolf Rascher, M. Zäh

    Zerspanung von Hochleistungswerkstoffen mit ultrasonisch modulierter Schnittgeschwindigkeit

    ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 2-5

    2020

    DOI: 10.3139/104.112255

    Abstract anzeigen

    Die steigenden Anforderungen an die Festigkeit und die Qualität von Bauteilen und die damit verbundene Verwendung hochfester Materialien erfordert die Weiterentwicklung neuer wirtschaftlicher Zerspanungstechniken. Durch eine werkzeugseitige Schwingungsüberlagerung können bei der Bearbeitung von schwer zerspanbaren Werkstoffen die Zerspankräfte und der Werkzeugverschleiß reduziert sowie die Oberflächenqualität verbessert werden.

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    Vortrag

    David Scholz, Thomas Stirner

    Hartree-Fock simulation of hematite surfaces with a posteriori calculation of correlation energy

    Preisträgervortrag zur Verleihung des Georg-Simon-Ohm-Preises der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft an David Scholz

    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, Dresden (abgesagt wegen Covid-19, gehalten an THD), Dresden

    2020